"Broken Windows" by David M. Hart.
A Screenplay about the Life and Work of FrEdEric Bastiat (1801-1850)

[Created: 2 August, 2016]
[Updated August 28, 2016 ]


[Some broken windows and a travelling glazier]





This screenplay is designed to be the classical liberal or libertarian equivalent of Warren Beatty's brilliant but very leftwing movie Reds (1981) about the life of the American communist journalist John Reed (1887-1920) before and during the Russian Revolution of 1917. [See his famous account Ten Days That Shook the World (1919).]

A number of movies about ideas and revolutions have influenced my thinking about this screenplay. Films explictly about revolutions include the following:

  • the Bolshevik or Russian Revolution: Warren Beatty, Reds (1981) - see the entry in the Internet Movie Data Base for Reds.
  • the French Revolution: Andrzej Wajda, Danton (1982) - about the rivalry between Danton and Robespierre during the Terror.[ See my old teaching Study Guide on Danton.]

Other films about how ideas can change the world include:

  • Richard Attenborough, Gandhi (1982)
  • Margarethe von Trotta, Rosa Luxemburg (1986)
  • Michael Apted, Amazing Grace (2006)

The screenplay as written (Aug. 2016) is part historical guide to the period (1843-1850), part biography of Bastiat, part history of the 1848 Revolution and the fighting on the street barricades aganst the Army, and part history of ideas of the growing liberal movement against protectionism, socialism, and bureaucratic Bonapartism. I have used the actual words of the participants in many of the speeches used in the screenplay such as meetings of the French Free Trade Association, speeches in the Chamber of Deputies in the Second Republic, the Peace Congress of Aug. 1849, and elsewhere. In any filmable version of the screenplay these of course would have to be drastically cut, but I include them here for historical purposes. [Some of them are also very good as political speeches.]

For more on this topic see my manuscript on "The Struggle against Protectionism, Socialism, and the Bureaucratic State: The Economic Thought of Gustave de Molinari, 1845-1855".

I have also tried to reconstruct the physical appearance of Paris when Bastiat went there in 1845. The three visually striking architectural structures which surrounded Paris at the time have since largely disappeared as the Paris suburbs have grown. But when Bastiat went to Paris for his May 1845 welcome by the Political Economy Society one of the newly constructed railroads would have taken him through the ring of 16 newly constructed "star shaped" forts which surounded the city for its "protection" from the British (Adolph Thiers' greatest fear); the massive military wall built by Adoplhe Thiers 1841-44 (at huge public expense and massive compulsory acquisition of private property), and the old customs wall built in the 1780s to make it easier for the private tax collectors, the Farmers General, to collect state taxes. Any attempt to film these architectoral structures would require considerable CGI resources. [See the map below of the three concentric circles of state power which surrounded Paris and restrained the free movement of its inhabitants.]

A third visual element in the film is the art of Delacroix and the political cartoons of Honoré Daumier. As visual themes or leit motifs for the film I had in my mind Delacroix's "Liberty Leading the People on the Barricdes" (1830) and Daumier's cartoon of "Gargantua" (1832) (which landed him in jail for offending the King). There can be seen below. For more details see the collection of illustrations in "Broken Windows: An Illustrated History of the Life and Works of Frédéric Bastiat."

I didn't want the film to end on a depressing note - even though it is probably the most suitable emotion to feel at the end of 1850 if you were a classical liberal in Paris - so I tried to think of a more uplifting way to end the movie. I think I found a suitable way to do so (thanks to R.C. Hoiles). Let me know what you think: Email me.

Note: the actual text of this draft of the screenplay retains the original formatting of the application used by many writers (Final Draft 9) to create screenplays for submission. Hollywood has very strict rules concerning the exact format screenplays have to be in. I'm sorry for that inconvenience. It is ugly but it seems to have evolved into the Hollywood equivalent of the QWERTY keyboard.

For additional information about Bastiat see:

A birdseye view of Paris and its 3 concentric circles of walls and forts

[A birdseye view of Paris and its 3 concentric circles of walls and forts in 1841-44]

Theme image of the film: Delacroix’s “Liberty Leading the People on the Barricade” (1830)

[Theme image of the film: Delacroix’s “Liberty Leading the People on the Barricade” (1830)]

King Louis Philippe the “tax-eater” sitting on his throne and shitting privileges

[King Louis Philippe the “tax-eater” sitting on his throne and shitting privileges]

What follows are some thoughts about various aspects of the film as I imagined it and wrote it. As an historian I wanted to be as historically accurate (and interesting) as possoble, and to kept dramatic fabrications to a minimum.

Striking Visuals

I have spent a lot of time thinking about the visuals and images (as the supplementary document of images shows) and I think I have come across some very striking ones which would make this film about Frederic Bastiat (FB) unique. This is also available online here "Broken Windows: An Illustrated History of the Life and Works of Frédéric Bastiat.". These include:

  1. the symbolism of the three rings of walls and forts which the French state built around Paris to oppress their own people. The main one, the military wall and the 16 outlying forts were built the year before FB arrived in Paris (I don’t think any filmmaker has ever shown these properly before so the Bastiat film would be a first). As these have been either destroyed (the custom gates were pulled down in 1859-60 during the rebuilding of Paris; the military walls were largely pulled down in the 1920s and eventually became the ringroad freeway which now circles Paris; and the forts are now largely part of the outer Paris suburbs) or abandoned they would have to be recreated by CGI.
  2. the contemporary art and political cartoons of Delacroix and Daumier
  3. drawings of the large halls where some of the key meetings were held in Paris for the free trade movement (Montesquieu Hall), the new revolutionary government (the Palais Bourbon, the Palais Luxembourg), and the Peace Congress (Saint Cecilia Hall)
  4. drawings of the large outdoor political banquets which eventually forced the King to abdicate and thus started the revolution (from the weekly illustrated newspaper L’Illustration)
  5. contemporary illustrations of the scores of massive barricades which were built in Paris during the height of the fighting against the regime (I don’t think any filmmaker has ever shown these properly before so the Bastiat film would again be another first)
  6. the home of the wealthy Cheuvreux family in Paris where Madame Cheuvreux held her private salons
  7. the Hunting Lodge at Butard in a forest outside Paris; this is now an important historic building and is listed as such; this is where FB wrote his major economic treatise


I also have thought a lot about music from the period to accompany the film, which includes:

  1. the folk music of his homeland - they played a kind of strange celtic bagpipe; the Basque people had quite mournful folk songs
  2. FB played the cello whenever he could so I have found pieces by Boccherini and Liszt he might have played
  3. FB loved the political songs of Béranger who was imprisoned several times by the regime for criticising the King; they were illegally sung in bars known as goguettes and FB knew many off by heart
  4. when FB was in Paris the operas of Verdi and the music of Hector Berlioz were popular; I have a scene where the opera diva of the day Jenny Lind meets FB at a soiree; Berlioz’ requiem mass would be good for FB’s death scenes

Big Set Pieces

Because FB was involved in politics and then in a major revolution there are several big set pieces, such as:

  1. King Louis Philippe inspecting his troops along the long military fortification wall
  2. a big public meeting of at least 2,000 people at the Montesquieu Hall in Paris for the French Free Trade Association
  3. a big outdoor political banquet held in a park in Paris on the eve of the Revolution, attended by 800-1,000 people and with “political toasts” challenging the government
  4. the protest marches through the streets of Paris in Feb. 1848 which led to the collapse of the government and the formation of the Second Republic; and the massive public funeral march through the streets of Paris for those killed by the troops
  5. the building by the people and then their destruction by the army of the scores of street barricades in Paris in Feb. and June 1848
  6. debates in the Chamber of the National Assembly which seated 900 elected deputies of the people; also the invasion of the Chamber by socialists who wanted to stage a coup d’état in May 1848
  7. the big International Congress of the Friends of Peace in August 1849 at which FB gave a keynote speech

My Fabrications in the Script

A number of things were complete fabrications on my part part which I did for dramatic purposes:

  1. FB had no assistant named Thomas and he was not killed on the barricades
  2. FB was not injured on the barricades although he was an eyewitness to these events, but he did intervene to call for a ceasefire to remove the dead and injured, and he was on the streets of Paris in both February and June
  3. FB was never diagnosed by a doctor as having throat cancer. He did have a severe throat condition which killed him but no one at the time really knew what it was. In his letters he complained a a “polyp” in his throat that was extremely painful and made swallowing increasingly difficult.
  4. He did not have an affair with Hortense Cheuvreux although she did lend him their hunting lodge, she was one of the only people from Paris to visit him on his deathbed in Rome, and she did publish his letters to her 28 years after his death (these were heavily edited and have nothing in them about an affair). I have no idea if he inscribed her copies of his books but it could have happened and is plausible given their relationship.
  5. King Louis Philippe inspecting his troops and riding the length of the new military wall on the 16th anniversary of his coming to power. I did find accounts from English tourists at the time who were surprised at how often there were military parades in Paris
  6. I made FB the driving force behind changing the strategy of the Parisian economists away from more academic activities and towards creating a popular movement for free trade along the lines of Cobden’s Anti-Corn Law League in England. This change made FB more pro-active in coming to Paris and fits in with what he had written about strategy in his 1845 book on Cobden and the League

Strange but True

Some other things sound as if they were made up, but did in fact happen, such as:

  1. King Louis Philippe’s throne was found burning in the street after his abdication (see Louis Blanc’s memoirs)
  2. Delacroix’s painting of Marianne/Liberty was under wraps in the bowels of the Luxembourg Palace where the socialist Louis Blanc held his meetings
  3. FB did have a farewell lunch at the Lodge and left it suddenly to go riding off into the sunset (Molinari’s obit. of FB)
  4. Delacroix was painting the ceiling murals of the Library in the Palais Bourbon at the time FB was there
  5. Louis Blanc’s supporters did invade the National Assembly while FB was there and did carry Blanc around the Chamber on their shoulders; he was stripped of his parliamentary privileges so he could be tried for it; and FB did defend his arch-enemy in the Chamber.
  6. the shepherds in his homeland did walk about on stilts
  7. FB did make a secret trip to London in Oct. 1849. Historians have wondered why and I have made an educated guess.
  8. the Nazis were melting down his bronze statue at the same time as the American publisher R.C. Hoiles in California was republishing FB’s works


The Main Players

His Friends and Colleagues (in order of appearance)

  • Félix Coudroy (1801-74) - trained as a lawyer; Bastiat's boyhood friend and neighbour in Mugron
  • Joseph Garnier (1813-1881) - editor of the Journal des Économistes; professor of political economy at the École des Ponts et chaussées
  • Urbain Guillaumin (1801-1864) - founded the Guillaumin publishing firm; his office was the HQ for the Parisian liberal movement kn own as the "Guillaumin network"
  • Horace Say (1794-1860) - son of Jean-Baptiste Say; a successful businessman and president of the Chamber of Commerce of Paris; married Anne Cheuvreux, sister of Casimir Cheuvreux
  • Mme Hortense Cheuvreux (née Girard) (1808-1893) - wife of the successful manufacturer Casimir Cheuvreux; ran a salon in Paris
  • Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912) - economic journalist; professor of political economy in Brussels after 1852; radical and prolific author
  • Michel Chevalier (1806-79) - had the chair of political economy at the Collège de France; mininster under Napoleon III; signed the treaty on free trade between France and England in 1860
  • Pierre-Jean Béranger (1780-1857) - a liberal poet and songwriter; elected to the Constituent Assembly in April 1848 with Bastiat
  • Thomas, his assistant and office boy (1830-1848) - an invented character
  • Hippolyte Castille (1820-1886) - radical republican journalist and author; ran his own salon from his house in the rue Saint-Lazare
  • Étienne Arago (1802-1892) - went to school with Bastiat; radical republican playright; Mininster of Post in the Second Republic
  • Jenny Lind (1820-1887) - Swedish opera star or the period; famous for singing Verdi
  • François Arago (1786-1853) - older brother of Étienne; mathematician and astronomer; Mininster for War in Second Republic
  • Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) - famous liberal politician and historian; Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Duc d’Harcourt (1786-1865) - politician, head of the French Free Trade Association
  • Alphone de Lamartine (1790-1869) - poet and historian; headed provisional giovernment after the fall of King Louis Philippe in Feb. 1848; Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Peupin (not known)
  • Richard Cobden (1804-1865) - English manufacturer; leader of the free trade movement in England; Member of Parliament; anti-war activist
  • Léon Faucher (1803-1854) - journalist; author; politician
  • Charles Coquelin (1802-1852) - secretary of the French Free Trade Association; editor of the Dictionnaire de l'économie politique; one of the founders of the political Club for the Liberty of Working in March 1848
  • Victor Hugo (1802-1885) - famous poet, playwright, novelist

His Opponents:

  • Louis Blanc (1811-1882) - socialist author; head of National Workshops program in early 1848; advocated the "right to a job"
  • Joseph Gratry (1805-1872) - Catholic priest and author
  • King Louis Philippe (1773-1850) - the French monarch between 1830 and Feb. 1848, the so-called "July Monarchy"
  • Adolphe Thiers (1797–1877) - one of the leading conservative politicans during the July Monarchy
  • Alexandre-Albert Martin (aka “Albert”) (1815-1895) - one of the leaders of the National Workshops program
  • Karl Marx (1818-1883) - the founder of communism (and "Marxism" of course)
  • Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (1808-1873) - nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte; elected President of the Second Republic in Dec. 1848; staged a coup d'état in Dec. 1851; declared himself Emperor Napoleon III on Dec. 1852

For more biographical information see “The World of French Political Economy in which Frédéric Bastiat lived”.


Acts and Scenes:

Opening: Death on the Barricades in June 1848

ACT I. From Provincial Mugron to Paris (1843–44)

ACT II. Success in Paris (1845–47)

ACT III. Revolution and Crisis between February and June 1848

ACT IV. Resolution - from June 1848 to December 1850

Coda: The Aftermath



Opening: Death on the Barricades in June 1848

Troops taking the barricade on the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi, 23 June 1848

[Troops taking the barricade on the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi, 23 June 1848]


                                                               FADE IN.


               June 22, 1848. GUNFIRE can be heard nearby as men and women
               run down the street towards one of the several barricades
               which have been thrown up across the street. Some are
               carrying banners with their protest slogans "We have a Right
               to a Job" and "Save the National Workshops" which they throw
               to the ground as they run. The barricades consist of paving
               stones, overturned carriages, broken doors, furniture and
               other debris all chained together. 

               The soldiers move down the street firing at the people on the
               barricade and in the apartments above the street. Behind them
               other soldiers are setting up an ARTILLERY PIECE which they
               aim at the barricade. Some of the protesters run into the
               side streets as soldiers fire volleys of rifle fire and the
               occasional artillery shell which hits the barricade. The
               soldiers fire methodically at the people, injuring some and
               killing others. Men begin firing back at the soldiers from
               the side streets and the windows of the upper stories of the
               houses along the street. Some people throw furniture and
               stones out of the windows onto the advancing soldiers.

               We see FREDERIC and his assistant THOMAS (whose face we
               cannot see) clutching the stack of newspapers they were
               handing out on the street, running towards the barricade to
               seek shelter. Frederic is hit in the upper arm by a bullet
               and stumbles, dropping the newspapers, and collapses behind
               the barricade. As he looks at the extent of his wound he is
               hit in the face by flesh and blood (perhaps some brain
               tissue) from the person next to him who has been killed by a
               bullet to the head. 

               As Frederic loses consciousness the camera pulls up
               vertically above him to show the street, then the suburb
               where the shooting has been taking place, and the
               neighbouring streets with all their barricades. The camera
               flies at increasing speed showing the city, the customs wall,
               the new military wall around Paris, the imposing forts
               outside the city, then into the countryside.

                                                                CUT TO:

               - DAY

               A flying camera takes us from Paris back to Mugron in the
               summer of 1843 showing the beauty of the French countryside.
               The camera flies over the Pyrénées mountains, down the Adour
               River towards the major port city of Bayonne with its toll
               gates and Customs House, and Frederic's home in the small
               town of Mugron and its empty town square. Then we see the
               sand dunes along the coast, the pine forests of the interior,
               the heathland with its sheep and shepherds, and the rolling
               hills of the vineyards.

               The camera zooms in to show Frederic's beautiful home in
               Mugron, where the story begins.

                                   FREDERIC (V.O.)
                         So the worst has happened; you left
                         our village. You abandoned the
                         fields you loved, the family home
                         in which you enjoyed such total
                         independence, your old books which
                         slumbered peacefully on their dusty
                         shelves, the garden in which on our
                         long walks we chatted endlessly
                         about every thing under the sun, 
                         this corner of the earth that was
                         our last refuge. None of this could
                         keep you here. You left the village
                         and went to Paris, to this Babylon,
                         to this living whirlwind.

                                                           DISSOLVE TO:



ACT I: Bastiat's Life in Mugron (1843-44)

Bastiat’s house in Mugron

[Bastiat’s house in Mugron]

                                                               FADE IN.


               At normal camera speed we see soundless shots of Frederic's
               house in Mugron and the peaceful economic activities which
               are going on around it, such as workers in his vineyards, his
               sharecroppers at work in the fields, SHEEP FARMERS ON STILTS
               tending their flocks, and boats full of goods plying the
               river. It does not look especially wealthy but there is some

                                                                CUT TO:


               People are lined up on foot and in their carriages outside
               the Customs Gate at the entrance to the town of Bayonne.
               Customs Officers are roughly inspecting the possessions of
               the people, poking them with long iron rods to find goods
               they will have to pay tax on. There are complaints by some of
               the people about the delays and the rough handling by the
               officers. They grumble about how much they have to pay to
               enter the town. Some people who can't pay the tax have their
               possessions confiscated.

                                                                CUT TO:

        5     EXT. A SMALL FARM IN THE VICINITY - DAY                  5

               Soldiers are going from farm house to farm house looking for
               men who are twenty and liable for conscription into the
               French army. They have a list of names of the young men they
               are looking for. They call at one farm to demand the
               appearance of a young man. He is dragged out by a soldier to
               the complaints of the father and tears of the mother. He is
               forced to join a column of other young men who are being
               taken to the local garrison to be inducted into the army.

                                                                CUT TO:

         6     EXT. A QUIET SPOT ON THE ADOUR RIVER - EVENING           6

               Customs officers have spotted a smugglers' boat hiding in a
               bend in the Adour river. It is full of bags of contraband
               Spanish salt and American tobacco which they plan to sell on
               the black market. The officers call out for the Basque men to
               The smugglers try to escape, the officers FIRE THEIR RIFLES
               killing one man, while the others escape into the fields
               leaving their goods behind. The officers seize the goods and
               we see some of them taking the salt and tobacco for their own
               personal use.

                                                                CUT TO:

         7     EXT. FREDERIC'S GARDEN - DAY                             7

               Frederic and his close boyhood friend and neighbour of 40
               years FELIX COUDROY are walking through Frederic's beautiful
               garden talking about philosophy, literature, and economics
               which they do on a regular basis. They come to a more open
               part of the garden and see a small bird busily building a
               nest. A hawk which has been circling above the garden
               suddenly swoops down and seizes the bird killing it
               immediately. The hawk then perches on a tree branch and
               begins tearing the bird apart and eating it. After a pause,
               Felix renews the conversation. 

                         Do you think it is in our nature to
                         kill and plunder our fellows?

                         It would seem so from what I have
                         been able to observe.

                         Yet Adam Smith says that it is
                         inherent in our nature to truck,
                         barter, and exchange with each
                         other. That is part of what makes
                         us human.

                         True. But maybe our nature is more
                         complex. Sometimes it is easier to
                         plunder than to produce.

               The two continue walking through the garden as they discuss
               the problem. It is a beautiful day.

         8     EXT. A STREET IN MUGRON - DAY                            8

               An illegal march is being held in the town by socialists to
               celebrate the 50th anniversary of the inauguration of the
               Terror and the Maximum system of price controls in 1793. They
               hold banners with Jacobin slogans such as "Robespierre saved
               the Revolution!" and "Price Controls on Bread".
               They also have banners with slogans supporting the
               contemporary socialist Louis Blanc, such as "We demand the
               right to a job", and "The Workers must Organise to defeat the

               Some locals clap the marchers, others jeer at them calling
               them names, such as "Bloody socialists!" "Murderers". An ANTI
               SOCIALIST YOUTH is especially vocal in his opposition. One of
               the YOUNG SOCIALISTS breaks away from the march and
               approaches the other youth. 

                                   SOCIALIST YOUTH
                         You damn bourgeois!

                                   ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH
                         You murdering Jacobin! How many
                         people do you plan to kill this

               The two youths scuffle and the anti-socialist youth is shoved
               against a SHOP WINDOW BREAKING it in a very dramatic fashion.
               (Note: Since there are several episodes in the film which
               will show windows being broken we need to come up with
               visually interesting and creative ways in which glass can

               The police arrive to break up the march and arrest as many of
               the marchers as they can, as well as the anti-socialist youth
               who broke the window. The socialist youth escapes on foot.

                                                                CUT TO:


               Frederic begins a typical day in the local Magistrates court,
               which looks out over the town square, hearing minor cases.

                         The first case concerns petty
                         property damage to a store owned by
                         M. Jacques Bonhomme. His shop
                         window was broken during a scuffle
                         between two youths. One of the
                         youths was arrested. They other ran

                            (addressing the youth)
                         Is this true young man? Did you
                         break M. Bonhomme's window?

                                   ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH
                         Yes Monsieur.

                         Why did you do it?

                                   ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH
                         It was an accident. I was arguing
                         with a protester and he pushed me
                         and I fell against the window and
                         broke it.

                         What were you arguing about? It
                         must have been a pretty violent

                                   ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH
                         He was a socialist who supported
                         the Terror. I do not and we started
                         arguing. One thing led to another

                         I see. It is a good thing to be
                         arguing about. Regardless of the
                         justice of your position, a window
                         of an innocent third party was
                         broken and his loss has to made
                         good. The law states I should
                         impose either a fine or a few days
                         in prison or working in a labour
                         gang repairing the roads. What do
                         you think a fitting punishment
                         should be? 

                                   ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH
                         I suppose a fine because it was
                         just a window, and there was one
                         good thing that came out of it. The
                         glazier made a profit installing a
                         new window.

                         Not at all! No good came out of you
                         breaking M. Bonhomme's window. If
                         he hadn't had to pay for a new
                         window he might have bought a new
                         pair of shoes. So he lost a window
                         and wasn't able to buy a new pair
                         of shoes, and the shoe maker lost a

                                   ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH
                         I suppose so ... What will you do
                         to me?

                         You owe M. Bonhomme 6 francs to
                         cover the cost of a new window. If
                         he is willing, I instruct you to
                         work that off by working in his
                         store under his supervision. Is
                         that agreeable to you M. Bonhomme?

                                   JACQUES BONHOMME
                         Yes it is sir.

                         Good. I don't want to send a young
                         man to prison over a minor matter
                         like this. Let's not bother the
                         government any more with this. Next
                         case M. Prosecutor.

                                                                CUT TO:

        10     EXT. THE MARKET IN BAYONNE - DAY                        10

               An annual festival and market is being held in the regional
               centre of Bayonne. We see people playing the local instrument
               a celtic bagpipe; Basques are singing their mournful folk
               songs; shepherd youths on stilts are jousting with each; a
               bull fight is underway in the local arena; there is a
               bustling market filled with all the local produce. As a
               respected Justice of the Peace Frederic has been asked to
               judge the local smoked ham competition. He walks around the
               many stalls in the market which have their hams on display.
               He tastes the hams, talks to the vendors in their local
               languages (he speaks Spanish, the Gascogne dialect of French,
               and Basque), cracking jokes and listening to their stories.
               They like and respect him because he is a fair and no
               nonsense magistrate who has looked after their interests for
               over ten years. The crowd gathers to hear his final
               judgement. He announces the winner who is a matronly woman
               who comes forward to receive the prize of a small cash
               amount. There is a cheer as she accepts the award as she is a
               popular choice among the locals. At the end of the day
               Frederic mounts his horse and rides slowly back to his farm
               in Mugron savouring the warm air of the region he loves so

        11     INT. THE OFFICE OF THE MAGISTRATE'S COURT - DAY         11

                         M. Bastiat, here is a revised case
                         list for the coming week.

               Frederic reads it and gets angrier as he reads.

                         What is this? The arrest and trial
                         of smugglers and draft dodgers is
                         not our business. Why are there so

                         The government has issued a decree
                         ordering us to assist with their
                         crackdown on law breakers like
                         smugglers, draft dodgers, and
                         people holding political meetings.

                         This is outrageous! My job is to
                         settle local property matters and
                         keep the peace, not enforce the
                         government's absurd policies.

                         There is nothing I can do.
                         Everybody is in the same boat. The
                         King has ordered that dissent and
                         disobedience be eliminated before
                         it gets out of control.

                         If he keeps doing this, it will
                         definitely get out of control.

                                                                CUT TO:

        12     I/E. A GOGUETTE/BAR IN MUGRON - EVENING                 12

               Frederic is walking home from the Court through the main
               street of Mugron and passes a goguette (bar) where he hears
               singing. He stops and enters the bar and hears a group of men
               singing Béranger's popular song "The Smugglers". He joins in
               as he knows the words.

                                   MEN IN A BAR
                         Curse them! Curse them, the Revenue
                         Because we bring happiness and
                         The people always toast our health. 
                         They are indeed our friends.
                         Yes, everywhere the people are our
                         Yes, everywhere, everywhere, the
                         people are our friends.
                         Men busy themselves with trade 
                         But taxes bar the way.
                         Let us through! Exchanges will be
                         There will be balance, come what
                         Providence protects us everywhere 
                         And asks that in return, 
                         Abundance we will share
                         So wealth there is to earn.
                         Curse them! Curse them, the Revenue
                         For we bring happiness and wealth!
                         The people always toast our health. 
                         They are indeed our friends.
                         Yes, everywhere the people are our
                         Yes, everywhere, everywhere, the
                         people are our friends.

               The singing finishes and Frederic moves closer to a group of
               men who are arguing about politics. One is a SOCIALIST and
               defends the ideas of the socialist Louis Blanc.

                                   MAN IN GOGUETTE 1
                         So what you are saying is that the
                         workers have to organise their own
                         labour and not let the bosses
                         control what they do?

                                   SOCIALIST 1
                         Yes. They have to oranise work
                         rationally, not the chaos of the
                         market we have now. And their wages
                         should reflect the full value of
                         the things they create. If they
                         organise things properly there will
                         no longer be any profits for the
                         capitalists or interest paid to the
                         bankers. The workers will get to
                         keep everything for themselves. "To
                         each according to their needs; from
                         each according to their abilities"
                         That's our motto. What could be
                         fairer than that?

               Frederic interrupts their conversation.

                         What happens to the person who puts
                         up the money to start the business,
                         who pays the workers before any
                         profits are made, and who assumes
                         the risk of the business failing?
                         How do they get paid?

                                   SOCIALIST 1
                         They are parasites who should not
                         get paid anything. Their labour
                         contributed nothing to the final

                         They may not do manual labour but
                         they labour with their minds.

                                   SOCIALIST 1
                         What a load of nonsense! Read this!

               He gives Frederic and the men at his table some socialist
               literature, which Frederic quickly reads.

                         So, who does all this organising of

                                   SOCIALIST 1
                         Society does. Or at least the
                         working part of society does.
                         According to Louis Blanc.

                         What if I don't want to be
                         organised in the way M. Blanc

                                   SOCIALIST 1
                         We all have to do what society says
                         is best, don't we sir? Otherwise
                         there will be hell to pay.

                         Yes, we all have to pay one way or

               POLICEMEN enter the bar shouting.

                                   LOCAL POLICEMAN
                         Everybody out! You know it is
                         against the law to hold political

                                   ONE OF THE MEN IN THE BAR
                         We were just singing a song and
                         having a drink!

                                   LOCAL POLICEMAN
                         That's what they all say! Get your
                         workbooks ready for inspection!

               The policemen manhandle the men in the bar, seize the
               socialist's literature, and take him and some of the other
               men away under arrest. They then inspect everybody's
               workbooks and then force the goguette to shut for the

                                                                CUT TO:


               Frederic is in a carriage on his way to the Council Chamber
               in Bayonne. He is waiting to be inspected by Customs
               officials who will force him to pay duty on any consumer
               goods he is bringing into the town. There is a long line of
               people ahead of him. He has a box of printed copies of the
               report on local tax reform he is about to present. The
               CUSTOMS OFFICER rifles through Frederic's possessions
               knocking the bundle of papers to the ground. Frederic argues
               with him.

                                   CUSTOMS OFFICER
                         Anything to declare?

                         No. Only my impatience.

               The Customs Officer notices Frederic's package of papers.

                                   CUSTOMS OFFICER
                         Let me have a look.

               He leans into the carriage and begins rifling through it.

                                   CUSTOMS OFFICER (CONT'D)
                         What this? Something to sell?

                         No. They are copies of the Report
                         I'm about to give to the General
                         Council this afternoon. I'll be
                         giving them away. In fact, I'll
                         probably make a financial loss on
                         the afternoon if that is any help
                         to you.

               Unhappy with this answer, the officer carelessly knocks the
               papers to the ground.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Hey! Be careful! Pick them up!

                                   CUSTOMS OFFICER
                         Pick them up yourself.

               He moves down the line to the next waiting carriage, while
               Frederic picks up his papers and goes on his way.

                                                                CUT TO:


               Frederic is in the Council Chambers where he presents his
               Report on the need to lower the tax burden in the region if
               they are to avoid another VIOLENT UPRISING in protest. There
               is considerable opposition to his remarks.

                         The president of the Council asked
                         to me draw up a Report to answer
                         the Government's request for
                         information about reallocating the
                         tax burden for our Department, an
                         inquiry which is soon to begin. You
                         have my full report in your hands.
                         I apologise for the dirt marks. I
                         had an altercation with a Customs
                         Officer coming into the city. He
                         thought this was high value
                         contraband which I was smuggling
                         into the town to sell.

               The Councillors all laugh.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         As you can see, it is of low
                         monetary value but I hope to
                         persuade you that it might be of
                         high political value. Let me draw
                         your attention to the summary on
                         page 2 of my Report. In brief I
                         argue that the government has
                         locked us into a tax regime which
                         is rigid, inflexible, and 30 years
                         out of date. It must be changed if
                         we wish to avoid continuing
                         economic decline and perhaps even
                         political crisis.
                         Our tax burden was determined
                         decades ago when economic
                         conditions were very different from
                         those today. What was very
                         profitable then is less so today,
                         such as the wine industry, but the
                         tax burden remains the same. The
                         same goes for the new industries
                         which have emerged since then, such
                         as the pine forests. The tax burden
                         is thus all out of kilter. Some
                         farmers are being decimated by
                         malnutrition, there are artisans
                         with no work, and there are some
                         landowners whose most bitter
                         scrimping scarcely manages to
                         postpone ruin.

                                   THE COUNCILLORS
                            (From some of the
                         Hear! hear!

                         I suggest that there are two
                         solutions to our economic problems:
                         the first is the freedom to trade
                         so that we can be rewarded for
                         producing the things for which our
                         region is best at providing, like
                         wine; the second is to cut taxes
                         and make the burden more so that
                         all producers contribute the same
                         proportion of their income as their
                         changing economic fortunes allow.
                         If we do not do this we are
                         condemned to seeing more of our
                         farmers languish for lack of
                         overseas sales, and our workers
                         suffering from high prices for food
                         and lack of employment. This cannot
                         go on!

               A Council member interjects.

                                   COUNCILLOR 1
                         How will the government pay for all
                         these new public works like canals,
                         railways, and military
                         fortifications, if we cut taxes?

                         The Councillor asks an important
                         Perhaps we do not need all this new
                         expenditure on railway building and
                         the fortifications of Paris.
                         Private industry should pay for all
                         railway investment and we don't
                         need expensive military walls
                         around our capital city.

               There are murmurs of disapproval from the Councillors.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         If we do not lower taxes and make
                         them fairer there will be trouble,
                         I can assure you. Just the other
                         day I was in a gogette...

               The Councillors laugh at the idea of Frederic being in a
               workingman's bar.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         ... I was in a goguette and heard a
                         socialist agitator calling for the
                         workers to "organise labour"

               There are more murmurs of disapproval from the Councillors.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         You may mutter, but the man has a
                         point. If we do not open up our
                         economy to more opportunities for
                         work and employment, if we do not
                         reduce taxes and make those few
                         taxes which remain more fairly
                         distributed among the people, then
                         agitators like the one I met will
                         be able to mount the case that it
                         is time to change the system

                                   THE COUNCILLORS
                         No! No!

                         You call yourselves Conservatives.
                         You oppose the lowest social strata
                         having the right to vote. In that
                         case, be the responsible guardians
                         of these people who are banned from
                         participating. You do not wish to
                         rule fairly on their behalf, nor to
                         allow them to legally rule for
                         themselves. What then do you want?
                         There is just one possible end to
                         their sufferings and this is to
                         rise up in rebellion against the
                         things that harm them. 

                                   THE COUNCILLORS
                         No! Never!

                         If we do not reform our tax system
                         I promise you this will happen.
                         There will be a political explosion
                         not seen since the last one in

                                   THE COUNCILLORS

                                                                CUT TO:

        15     INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - DAY                    15

               We see Frederic's book-lined study and his desk covered with
               books and papers as if he were in the middle of writing
               something. The camera pans across the shelves showing
               economics book in Italian, Spanish, English, and French. We
               also see a print of Frederic's favourite painting by
               hanging prominently on his study wall. 

               Frederic is writing at his antique desk which looks out into
               a beautiful garden. On his desk are some of his favourite
               books: a collection of Boccherini cello sonatas, a Basque
               grammar, Molire's plays, La Fontaine's Fables, Adam Smith's
               Wealth of Nations in English, Jean-Baptitste Say's Treatise
               on Political Economy, and Béranger's Songs. We will see these
               same books later again in his office in Paris.

               Now and again he gets up to check a reference in a book on
               his shelf. Sunshine streams into the room through French
               doors which open out onto a patio. In the distance we can see
               his vineyards and the curves of the Adour river. It is an
               idyllic scene. At one moment we see him look up to see a
               single bird pecking for food just outside the french doors.
               He gets up, goes to a small bowl of grain, and throws some to
               the little bird, which jumps about in excited expectation.
               Frederic smiles.

        16     INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - EVENING                16

               Frederic's close friend Felix and some of his NEIGHBOURS have
               gathered for their regular meeting of "THE ACADEMY"
               DISCUSSION GROUP. Frederic is in the sitting room playing his
               cello (a Boccherini suite). The local red wine from
               Frederic's vineyard is being served by a Basque-speaking

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         Not a bad drop Frédéric. What year
                         is it?

               Frederic puts down his cello and joins the others


                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         Yours is better than mine. My
                         grapes took forever to ripen.

                         This year's should be as good if
                         not a bit better. We'll see how
                         well the sun shines.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         Would you like some tobacco? I just
                         got a new delivery of American

                         From whom?

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         From my usual Basque supplier. He
                         is very reliable.

                         Was it made in Kentucky?

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         I don't know. Does it matter?

                         Yes. I refuse to smoke slave-made
                         tobacco. So if I can, I buy
                         Kentucky grown tobacco which is
                         made by free labour. But smoking is
                         starting to hurt my throat, so I'm
                         trying to give it up for good

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         Too bad. It is very good.

                         Have you noticed the police crack
                         down around the district? I saw a
                         goguette closed down the other day
                         in a pretty brutal manner. Quite
                         uncalled for.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 2
                         They probably deserved it, singing
                         that way about the King's

                         Well, they were promised some
                         political freedoms when the King
                         seized power in 1830 and we helped
                         him do that if you remember. This
                         is what his promises have come to.

                         They have trebled my work load at
                         the Court. I now have to deal with
                         all these police raids and arrests.
                         It is not really my job and I am
                         appalled by it. It will only
                         provoke further opposition.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 2
                         It is better to nip it in the bud
                         now than wait till later.

                         Or it could lead to the opposite.
                         That is what worries me.

                         So what should the government do?

                         It is not what the government
                         should do but what the people make
                         the government do.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         And what is that?

                         Do what the English are doing right
                         now with the Anti-Corn Law League.
                         That is what I have been reading
                         about for a couple of months.

               He waves his arm towards his desk piled high with books and

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         And that is ... ?

                         Richard Cobden says the English
                         ruling elite, the "oligarchy" he
                         calls it, won't reform the system
                         unless they are absolutely forced

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         By whom for goodness sake?

                         By the ordinary people who have
                         been mobilised by his movement.
                         Just the other week, they had
                         collected hundreds of thousands of
                         signatures calling for an end to
                         tariffs and dumped them on the
                         steps of Parliament House to
                         embarrass the government into
                         action. It was truly amazing.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         You don't say! The cheek!

                         But why are they going after
                         tariffs? How will that help them?

                         Well to begin with, cheaper food
                         for everybody, especially the poor.
                         And besides, tariffs are the key to
                         the economic power of the landed
                         elites. Abolish them and you cut
                         their heart out. We should do the
                         same here if we want real reform of
                         the system.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         The French people wouldn't stand
                         for that. They think eliminating
                         tariffs would expose them to
                         foreign competition and destroy
                         their livelihoods.

                         That is what they have been taught
                         to believe by our ruling elites,
                         But it isn't true. They have been
                         duped and I plan to enlighten them
                         one day.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 2
                         How would free trade effect our
                         business? Wouldn't we suffer loss
                         of markets?

                         On the contrary. The growing wealth
                         of the English middle class would
                         be a huge new market for our wines.
                         Our trade hasn't expanded for
                         decades. We should be allowed to
                         sell to them. How else can we earn
                         enough to pay our taxes?

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         But if government revenue falls if
                         we cut tariffs how do we pay for
                         the railways, or the military?

                         That is the beauty of Cobden's
                         strategy! With free trade in place
                         the British people will have much
                         better relations with their
                         neighbours, like us, and the
                         government can drastically cut
                         military spending, and thus
                         eventually cut even more taxes. We
                         then are in a virtuous circle of
                         peace, prosperity, and lower taxes!

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         That is crazy Frederic! Madness! We
                         can't disarm while the British Navy
                         rules the waves!

                         And that is exactly what the
                         British say about the French Army!
                         Somebody has to make the first
                         move. And it might well be Britain,
                         if Cobden has his way.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 2
                         And by the look of it
                            (gesturing to Frederic's
                         you plan to help him do just that.

                         Exactly. I have been researching
                         all summer and have written a book
                         on Cobden's strategy and how it
                         might be applied to French

               He passes around copies of his manuscript.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Just listen to what he said the
                         other day in Manchester. If this
                         doesn't inspire you I don't know
                         what will.

               Frederic grabs a copy of an English newspaper on his desk and
               begins to read. As Frederic reads we cut to the hall in
               Manchester where we see Cobden at the podium in front of
               several thousands people.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         "Before a large crowd in Manchester
                         the leader of the Anti-Corn Law
                         League Richard Cobden presented
                         this rousing conclusion to his
                         speech which enraptured his
                         enthusiastic audience:"

                                                               FADE TO:


                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         I have never taken a limited view
                         of the object or scope of this
                         great principle. I see in the Free
                         trade principle that which shall
                         act on the moral world as the
                         principle of gravitation in the
                         universe, drawing men together,
                         thrusting aside the antagonism of
                         race, and creed, and language, and
                         uniting us in the bonds of eternal
                         peace. I have looked even farther.
                         I have speculated, and probably
                         dreamt, in the dim future Ñ ay, a
                         thousand years hence Ñ I have
                         speculated on what the effect of
                         the triumph of this principle may
                         be. I believe that the effect will
                         be to change the face of the world,
                         so as to introduce a system of
                         government entirely distinct from
                         that which now prevails. I believe
                         that the desire and the motive for
                         large and mighty empires; for
                         gigantic armies and great navies Ñ
                         for those materials which are used
                         for the destruction of life and the
                         desolation of the rewards of labour
                         Ñ will die away; I believe that
                         such things will cease to be
                         necessary, or to be used, when man
                         becomes one family, and freely
                         exchanges the fruits of his labour
                         with his brother man. I believe
                         that, if we could be allowed to
                         reappear on this sublunary scene,
                         we should see, at a far distant
                         period, the governing system of
                         this world revert to something like
                         the municipal system; and I believe
                         that the speculative philosopher of
                         a thousand years hence will date
                         the greatest revolution that ever
                         happened in the world's history
                         from the triumph of the principle
                         which we have met here to advocate.

                                                               FADE TO:

        18     INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - NIGHT                  18

               Frederic stops reading from the newspaper in order to gather
               his breath.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         He is claiming a lot for the reform
                         of a single economic policy.

                         It is not just an economic reform.
                         It is a complete change in the way
                         people interact with each other.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         Perhaps ...  But it wouldn't work
                         here. The French don't have the
                         reformist zeal of Protestant

                         Don't forget the English women!
                         They are deeply involved in this as

                                   NEIGHBOUR 1
                         Goodness gracious! How appalling!

                         But I don't agree. I have also been
                         researching how free trade would
                         change the situation here in France
                         and I think the same things could
                         happen here.  I have written
                         another paper which I plan to send
                         to Paris to get published.

                                   NEIGHBOUR 2
                         Good luck with that. I'm not sure
                         there are many there who would
                         support you. 

                         There are a few economists in Paris
                         who are free traders. They will be
                         interested. I'm also going to send
                         a copy to Cobden to see what he
                         thinks of it.

                         Gentlemen! Enough economics for one
                         night. It is giving me a headache.
                         Have some more wine. Frederic, what
                         were you playing as we came in?
                         Play us some more.

                         No. Something more light-hearted.

               Frederic begins singing a song by Béranger, "The Good Yvetot"
               as his neighbours drink more wine, and sing along with him.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         There once was a king who won no
                         in our history books for ruling
                         he went early to bed and was late
                         to rise
                         his night-cap crown was his sole
                         Rat-a-tat! Rat-a-tat! Rat-a-tat!
                         Oh what a good little king was

                                                                CUT TO:

        19     EXT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - NIGHT                  19

               After his guests have gone for the evening there is a knock
               at the door. The Basque maid announces that one of FREDERIC'S
               SHARECROPPERS wants to talk to him. He is the same man we say
               earlier whose son was dragged away by the army recruiters.

                         Good evening Pierre. What can I do
                         for you.

                                   PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER
                         Good evening M. Bastiat. I have
                         come to ask for your advice and a

                         What can I do?

                                   PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER
                         They took my boy yesterday.

                         Who took your boy?

                                   PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER
                         The Army. They came to the house
                         and took him away. What can I do to
                         get him back? We need him.

                         They are cracking down on everybody
                         right now. They have to fill their
                         quota of recruits. Orders from
                         Paris. Do you have enough money to
                         pay for a substitute? What is the
                         going rate right now?

                                   PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER
                         Two thousand francs. I don't have
                         that much. I have about 700 francs
                         put aside for my daughter's dowry.
                         I could use that.

                         This is terrible Pierre. They
                         shouldn't do this to hard working
                         people. The Army is already too big
                         and costly. They don't need any
                         more farm boys. Here is what I can
                         do. I can lend you the money and
                         you can pay it back when you can.
                         You have been a good tenant for me
                         for many years. I know I can trust

                                   PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER
                         Thank you M. Bastiat, thank you!

                                                                CUT TO:

        20     INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - EVENING                20

               A few days later Frederic has sent a message to his friend
               and neighbour Felix to visit him to tell him some good news.
               Felix enter's his study.

                         Yes, Frederic. You wanted to see

                         Yes, yes! They want me to come to
                         Paris to talk to them.


                         The Economists. They liked the
                         draft of my book and the research
                         paper and want to publish them. 

                         That is excellent news Frederic.

                         Yes. Let's have a glass to

               They sit down and open a bottle of wine.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         They also want me to talk to them
                         about my plan to start a French
                         Free Trade movement like Cobden's
                         in England.

                         Fantastic! Will it mean you will
                         have to move to Paris?

                         Most probably.

                         What about your farms and your job
                         as Justice of the Peace? 

                         I will have to employ a manager for
                         the vineyard and the farms, that is
                         not too hard to arrange. Regarding
                         the Justice of the Peace, I have
                         become so angry at what the
                         government is asking me to do right
                         now that I was close to resigning
                         anyway. I can't in all conscience
                         help them repress free trade and
                         freedom of assembly, and I won't
                         help them beef up the size of the
                         Army. That goes against my most
                         fundamental beliefs. I'll take a
                         leave of absence and see what

                         As a friend, I have to tell you
                         that this is a big move for a man
                         your age. You are 44 after all and
                         your health is not so good. Your
                         cough is getting worse, I can tell.
                         Is this really the time to be
                         making a major change in your life?

                         Perhaps not, but I think there is
                         more I want to do outside of our
                         little village of Mugron. As much
                         as I like life here I think there
                         are powerful forces at work in the
                         world which I want to be a part of.

                         Like the free trade movement?

                         Yes! But that is not all there is
                         to it. My researches over the past
                         year have shown me I have some
                         skill as a writer and I want to
                         explore that, to see how far it
                         might take me. Maybe I have a book
                         about economic theory in me, like
                         we used to talk about when we were
                         kids. How will I find out if I
                         don't try?

                         It sounds like you have made up
                         your mind already. I'll miss you
                         Frederic, especially our little
                         salon, the Academy on the Adour

               The scene ends with Frederic's Basque maid in the kitchen
               quietly singing a Basque folk song "Adios Ene Maitia"
               (Goodbye, My Love).

                         Adios ene maitia
                         Adios sekŸlako
                         Nik ez dit beste phenarik
                         Maitia zuretako
                         Zeren Ÿzten zŸntŸdan
                         Hain libro bestentako
                         Goodbye, my love
                         Goodbye forever
                         I have no regrets
                         About you, my love
                         For I left you
                         So free for another

                                                              FADE OUT.



ACT II. Success in Paris (1845 to Feb. 1848)

A Panoramic View of Paris in the 1840s

[A Panoramic View of Paris in the 1840s]

                                                               FADE IN:

        21     EXT. THE JOURNEY TO PARIS - DAY                         21

               May 1845. We see Frederic making the long journey from Mugron
               to Paris, the first leg by the traditional way by coach to
               Orléans, and then from Orléans to Paris by the newly built
               train. On the way to Orléans we see the next leg of the
               railway system to Bordeaux being built by navvies who are
               leveling the ground for the tracks and cutting through the
               sides of hills.

               As the train gets closer to Paris we see one of the ENORMOUS
               FORTS which have recently been completed around the city. The
               train then passes under the new MILITARY WALL before it
               reaches the inner ring of the older CUSTOMS WALLS built in
               the 1780s. The passengers have to disembark at one of the
               very recently built HUGE RAILWAY STATIONS in Paris. Their
               luggage is inspected by customs officers who demand payment
               for consumer goods which are being brought into the city. The
               passengers are then free to leave the station platform.

                                                                CUT TO:

        22     EXT. THE SAINT-LAZARE TRAIN STATION                     22

               Frederic is met by JOSEPH GARNIER the editor of the Journal
               des ƒconomistes.

                         Monsieur Bastiat, welcome to Paris!
                         My name is Joseph Garnier, the new
                         editor of the Journal des

                         Good afternoon Monsieur Garnier!
                         I'm glad to be here.

                         Please call me Joseph. Let me help
                         you with your bags. Guillaumin
                         asked me to meet you and take you
                         to your apartment. Don't forget
                         that there is a welcome dinner for
                         you tomorrow night hosted by the
                         Political Economy Society.

                         Excellent, I'm looking forward to
                         meeting everybody very much.

                         There is so much to talk about!
                         Guillaumin and the other economists
                         were very impressed with your work.
                         They have a lot of questions to ask

                         And I them.

                         By the way, if you don't mind me
                         asking, where did you study
                         economics? Whom did you study

                         Nobody. I taught myself.

                         My goodness, how unusual. Here is
                         our carriage. After you!

               Joseph opens the door to the carriage and helps Frederic

        23     EXT. LES HALLES FOOD MARKET IN PARIS - DAY              23

               Their coach takes them past the large Paris food market, LES
               HALLES, where they see all the economic activity which it
               takes to feed a city the size of Paris with its one million

                                   FREDERIC (V.O.)
                         Here in Paris are a million human
                         beings who would all die in a few
                         days if supplies of all sorts did
                         not flood into this huge
                         metropolis. The mind boggles when
                         it tries to assess the huge variety
                         of objects that have to enter
                         through its gates tomorrow if the
                         lives of its inhabitants are not to
                         be snuffed out in convulsions of
                         famine, uprisings, and pillage.
                         And in the meantime everyone is
                         asleep, without their peaceful
                         slumber being troubled for an
                         instant by the thought of such a
                         frightful prospect. On the other
                         hand, eighty departments have
                         worked today without being in
                         concert and without agreement to
                         supply Paris. How does it happen
                         that every day what is needed and
                         no more or less is brought to this
                         gigantic market? What is thus the
                         ingenious and secret power that
                         presides over the astonishing
                         regularity of such complicated
                         movements, a regularity in which
                         everyone has such blind faith,
                         although well-being and life depend
                         on it? This power is an absolute
                         principle, the principle of free

                                                                CUT TO:

        24     INT. A RESTAURANT IN PARIS - EVENING                    24

               10 May 1845. The Political Economy Society is hosting a
               welcome dinner for Frederic. The publisher and co-founder of
               the Society GUILLAUMIN introduces Frederic to the other
               economists. All the key players are there including HORTENSE
               CHEUVREUX and ANNA SAY who are the wives of two of the
               wealthy funders of the economists's activities. When Frederic
               arrives his hat and coat are taken by the doorman who hangs
               Frederic's large and unfashionable green hat and woolen coat
               on a hook alongside the many, plain, black, but very
               fashionable hats and coats of the economists.

                         Ladies and Gentlemen, on your
                         behalf I would like to welcome our
                         newest member to the Society, M.
                         Frédéric Bastiat, who is joining us
                         this evening all the way from Les
                         Landes in Gascogny.

               There is polite applause and shouts of "welcome" from those

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         I'm sorry I wasn't at the station
                         to greet you myself.

                         Don't worry. The Customs Officer
                         was there to greet me!

                         Of course he was! He welcomes
                         everybody to Paris!

               There is much hilarity among the guests.

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         As you know, we published his
                         article on French and English
                         tariff policy in our journal last
                         October. Who knew there was such a
                         talent hidden away in the
                         provinces! Such mastery of
                         statistics and economic theory!

               There are cries of "Indeed" and "Congratulations" from those

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         Not only that, but he has written a
                         book which our press will shortly
                         publish on the strategy of the
                         English Anti-Corn Law League. It is
                         a very, shall I say "challenging"
                         book, which should stir up quite a
                         bit of controversy among us. So,
                         with no further ado, I propose a
                         toast to M. Bastiat. Welcome to

               Everyone stands and toasts "Welcome to Paris!"

                         Thank you so much for your kind
                         introduction. I would like to
                         propose another toast, to "Peace,
                         Prosperity, and Freedom in Our

               The attendees toast to "Peace, Freedom, and Freedom in Our
               The meal begins and there is much conversation and drinking.
               Guillaumin introduces Frederic to members of the Society, the
               President CHARLES DUNOYER, ANNA AND HORACE SAY the wealthy
               business and financial supporter of the Economists, and the
               professor of economics MICHEL CHEVALIER.

                         Let me introduce you to some of our

               He takes Frederic by the arm and steers him towards CHARLES

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         Here is our distinguished President
                         of the Society, Charles Dunoyer.

                         Welcome to Paris Monsieur.

                         Thank you. It is a real pleasure to
                         meet the author of so many books
                         which have profoundly influenced my

                         You are too kind!

                         I'm currently writing a review of
                         your latest, "On the Liberty of

                            (he does not look pleased
                              at Frederic's effrontery)

                         Now you must meet Horace and Anna
                         Say. M. Say is one of our most
                         important supporters and his wife
                         Anna helps run our salon.

                         It's a pleasure to meet you
                         Monsieur, Madame.

                         And next to them is Michel
                         Chevalier, one of our rising stars.
                         He was recently appointed to the
                         chair in political economy at the
                         Collge de France and has just been
                         elected to the Chamber of Deputies.
                         We are expecting a great deal of
                         him in the future.

                         It is a pleasure to meet you

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         I am pleased to meet the person who
                         wrote that remarkable essay. We
                         will have to talk about that when
                         you have a moment.

                         Yes, I'd love to.

                         Now you must meet Madame Hortense
                         Cheuvreux. She and her husband
                         Casimir, who can't be here tonight,
                         are another of our important

                         It's a pleasure to meet you Madame.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         The pleasure's all mine. 
                            (a certain look passes
                              between them which
                              suggests a more than
                              intellectual interest in
                              each other)
                         I was most taken by your analysis
                         of the British oligarchy in the
                         introduction to your book. You seem
                         to suggest that France too has its
                         oligarchy which must be defanged of
                         its powers before it does too much
                         damage. That is an intriguing idea.
                         We must talk about that some time
                         when you have a moment. 

                         I look forward to doing that soon

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         You must come to one of my soirées
                         once you have settled in.

                         How delightful!

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         M. Bastiat, a little bird has been
                         whispering in my ear about the
                         salon you used to run in Mugron,
                         the "Academy" I think it was

                         Yes, madame. My neighbours and I
                         are not Plato of course, but we
                         like to amuse ourselves from time
                         to time with good Bordeaux wines
                         and some stimulating conversation,

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I hear one moment you discussed
                         economics, and the next you would
                         play music and sing songs. How
                         delightful! We don't have any
                         musical economists in Paris. You
                         must play something for us.

                         It would be my pleasure. I pride
                         myself on being quite harmonious.

                         Excuse me Hortense but I want to
                         introduce M. Bastiat to our
                         youngest members. I'm sure they
                         will have a lot to talk about.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Of course! We'll meet again soon, I
                         hope M. Bastiat!

                         I hope so too madame.

                         Here is Joseph Garnier, whom you
                         have already met.

                         Hello again Joseph!

                         He is the Secretary of the
                         Political Economy Society and our
                         new editor of the Journal des
                         ƒconomistes. It was he, by the way,
                         who discovered your article on
                         French and British Tariffs and
                         brought it to our attention. It had
                         been languishing in the in tray for
                         weeks before he found it.

               Garnier nods and Frederic nods in thanks.

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         Next I want to introduce you to one
                         of our youngest members of the
                         Society, Gustave de Molinari. He is
                         engaged in our largest research and
                         publishing program on the history
                         of economic thought. He is also
                         working on a history of tariffs
                         which should be very interesting.

                         Good evening Gustave.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Good evening M. Bastiat.

                         Please call me Frederic.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Of course! Frederic. To get an
                         appreciation of the other side of
                         life here in Paris I would suggest
                         another kind of salon to Madame

                         Like what?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I and a few friends have our own
                         salon on the rue Saint-Lazare. You
                         should visit us one night and join
                         the conversation.

                         What do you talk about?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         The rights of ordinary workers. The
                         benefits of being a republic. That
                         sort of thing.

                         It sounds intriguing. I'd like to
                         participate. Send me an invitation.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I will.

                         Excuse me gentlemen, but there is
                         one more person I know Frederic
                         wants to meet - our poet of
                         liberty, BéRANGER.

                         Oh, Béranger is here! How

                         Yes. He made a special effort to
                         come tonight. This way. But before
                         I leave you, we would like to meet
                         with you tomorrow at our office to
                         discuss your book on Cobden and the
                         Anti-Corn Law League. Would that be

                         Yes, of course. Tomorrow then.

               Guillaumin takes Frederic to the other end of the table where
               BéRANGER is holding court among some of his admirers in the
               society. Frederic is introduced by Guillaumin and sits down
               next to Béranger. As the meal proceeds some SINGING begins at
               the far end of the table where Béranger is sitting. The
               loudest voice belongs to Frederic who gives a rowdy rendition
               of "The Smugglers Song". The more conservative members of the
               Society are not amused by his behaviour as they think
               Béranger is too common and crude. They sing the refrain.

                                   FREDERIC AND FRIENDS
                            (singing very boisterously)
                         Curse them! Curse them, the Revenue
                         For we bring happiness and wealth!
                         The people always toast our health. 
                         They are indeed our friends.
                         Yes, everywhere the people are our
                         Yes, everywhere, everywhere, the
                         people are our friends.

                                                                CUT TO:

        25     EXT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - DAY                          25

               The next day Frederic meets with the inner core of the
               Economist group to discuss their future plans. They are in
               the library which is lined with all the economics books the
               firm publishes.
               The publisher Guillaumin is there, along with the economist
               Michel Chevalier and the editor of the Journal des
               ƒconomistes Joseph Garnier, and Hortense Cheuvreux the wife
               of the wealthy industrialist and financial supporter of the
               economists CASIMIR CHEUVREUX. Guillaumin's daughter FELICITY
               who managers the running of the firm is also present. Before
               the meeting begins the economists are chatting with Frederic
               about his choice of clothes. He is wearing a green woolen
               jacket, a broad brimmed hat, and riding boots.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         I suppose now that you are in Paris
                         you will be wanting a good tailor
                         to fix you up with a fashionable

                         Why do you say that? I like my
                         clothes. They are very comfortable.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         But they look a bit too Gascogne, a
                         bit too countrified.

                         That's because I am from Gascony
                         and proud of it. I am also a
                         farmer, and a productive one at

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Leave him alone Michel. He is quite
                         charming. He adds a dash of colour
                         to all you black-coated economists.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         I didn't mean to offend. It is just
                         that we don't see many Gascogne
                         farmers around here.

                         Gentlemen. We can talk about the
                         fashion of economists, or perhaps
                         even the economics of fashion, some
                         other time. Let me get down to the
                         business at hand. First off,
                         Frederic, we want to publish your
                         book on Cobden and the League as
                         soon as possible. Felicity, our
                         office manager can tell us - what
                         is the publishing schedule for

                         Page proofs are due next month and
                         printing will take place in July.

                         Excellent! It should cause quite a
                         stir. Our good friend and colleague
                         over the channel, Richard Cobden,
                         wrote to me saying Frederic has
                         some very interesting ideas about
                         strategy in that book which we
                         should listen to closely if we want
                         to replicate his success. So I have
                         asked you here today to listen to
                         what M. Bastiat has to tell us.

                         Thank you Guillaumin. I have been
                         studying the success of Cobden's
                         Anti-Corn Law League for a couple
                         of years now and thinking hard
                         about how we might apply his
                         techniques to France. My conclusion
                         is that you are doing it all wrong.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         I beg your pardon!

                         You have no popular movement to put
                         pressure on the politicians and
                         vested interests to change things,
                         so things will never change.

               The economists are rather shocked at his forthrightness.

                         But we have our professors, our
                         journal, and our books.

                         Who reads them? How many people
                         belong to the Political Economy

                         About 150.

                         Out of total population of 36
                         million. And how many subscribers
                         to the Journal des ƒconomistes?

                         About 1,000.

                         Exactly! I rest my case. Do you
                         know how many people read the
                         magazine and the pamphlets of the
                         Anti-Corn Law League? Tens of

               The economists are shocked at the figure.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Just the other day they collected
                         hundreds of thousands of signatures
                         for a petition to repeal the corn
                         laws which they presented to the
                         House of Commons. They are on
                         course to getting legislation
                         passed in the Commons sometime in
                         1846 or 1847. Where are we?

                            (very defensively)
                         We have our strengths in academic
                         work, such as Chevalier's chair at
                         the College de France and Garnier's
                         professorship at the Engineering
                         school. Then there is the
                         formidable publishing achievements
                         of this firm in theoretical and
                         applied economics.

               Chevalier, Garnier, and Guillaumin all nod in agreement.

                         That is not enough. And
                         furthermore, time is running out.
                         The distortions caused by
                         protectionism are getting worse
                         year by year and unless we fix the
                         problem there could well be an
                         explosion of some sort.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Explosion? What kind of explosion?

                         We are seeing one take place in
                         Ireland right now with their food
                         shortages and massive price rises.
                         Without free trade in food many
                         thousands of people will die.
                         Something similar could happen here
                         if there is a crop failure.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER

                         What I propose is that we start a
                         popular free trade movement
                         alongside our existing academic
                         activities and focus on that for
                         three years. By that time we should
                         have softened up the opposition in
                         the Chamber and we can then force
                         them to reform the system of

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         What would you do specifically, M.
                         Bastiat, to begin this process?

                         I would start a popular weekly
                         magazine written for a broad
                         audience. That means keeping
                         technical economic language to a
                         minimum and using well-known
                         stories and language ordinary
                         people can understand. I would also
                         organise large meetings in key
                         cities and employ speakers to
                         present free trade ideas and debate
                         protectionists before the public.
                         When the politicians see how many
                         people we are reaching they will be
                         forced to pay more attention to us.
                         That is when we should start
                         lobbying them in earnest.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         That is a very ambitious plan and
                         thus would be an expensive

                         Yes. What Cobden and the League do
                         to offset some of those costs is to
                         charge a small fee for their
                         literature and they seek donations
                         to cover costs at every meeting.
                         You'd be surprised how much the
                         British public is willing to give
                         for good causes like anti-slavery
                         and free trade.

                         I'm not sure the French public
                         would be as generous.

                         How do we know unless we try?

                         Let me get this clear. Are you
                         putting yourself forward to
                         organise the activities you have
                         just outlined to us?

               Frederic hesitates only slightly before answering.

                         Yes I am. I've studied this for
                         years and think I am the man to do

                         Some of us have been thinking along
                         similar lines for a while now. M.
                         Bastiat would please excuse us for
                         a moment?

                         Of course.

               Frederic leaves the room to let the economists talk
               privately. He wanders around the Guillaumin offices looking
               at the books and magazines which are in production.
               Guillaumin fetches him after a few minutes.

                         M. Bastiat, would you please join
                         us again.


               They return to the library.

                         Our group was very much challenged
                         by your radical proposals for a new
                         strategy. We were initially sharply
                         divided but eventually reached a
                         consensus. We think your analysis
                         of our weaknesses and the strengths
                         of the English Anti-Corn Law League
                         are correct. We do need to change
                         to meet the new challenges we now
                         Therefore we have agreed to fund
                         what you propose for a period of
                         three years, after which we will
                         reassess the situation. We want you
                         to edit a weekly free trade
                         magazine, write articles for it in
                         the style you think most
                         appropriate, and organise public

                         That is excellent. Thank you all
                         very much for your confidence in

               He looks around the room nodding at the economists who smile
               and nod back at him.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         I won't let you down. Together we
                         will defeat this economic parasite
                         of protectionism!

                         We also have agreed to some
                         logistical matters. Felicity, would
                         you be so kind?

                         We will provide you with an office,
                         pay for a personal assistant, pay
                         you a salary plus expences, to be
                         negotiated, and publish what you
                         write for us.

                         Is that agreeable to you M.

                         Most agreeable, thank you!

                         Excellent! Let's have a glass of
                         wine to celebrate.

               As they are enjoying a glass of wine Hortense Cheuvreux comes
               up to Frederic with a twinkle in her eye.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Congratulations Monsieur Bastiat.
                         That was an impressive proposal you
                         put forward.

                         Thank you Madame. Guillaumin tells
                         me you were the driving force
                         getting them to agree to my

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I had something to do with it, but
                         they didn't need much convincing
                         when they understood what you were
                         proposing. It just took a few prods
                         of encouragement.
                            (she smiles suggestively at

                         I just hope I can repay you for
                         your support and confidence in me.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Don't you worry. I'll find

                                                                CUT TO:

        26     INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY            26

               May 1846. Frederic is working with his new assistant Thomas
               in an office on the second floor of a building in the rue
               Choiseul in central Paris. It is the HQ of the newly formed
               FRENCH FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION. There is a large desk in the
               middle of the room. Two of the walls are covered with book
               shelves which are only partly filled with books, there is a
               large window overlooking the street, and on the 4th wall
               hangs a map of the city showing the ring of walls and forts
               around the city. There are also prints of DAUMIER CARTOONS, a
               print of Delacroix's painting "Liberty Leading the People"
               from his home in Mugron, and an illustration from a book of
               Béranger's songs (The Smugglers).

                         Well, Thomas. What do you know
                         about economics?

                         Not much.

                         That is fine! You'll be just like
                         nearly every other person in
                         France! I can use you as a sounding
                         board for my little essays.

                         Yes, Monsieur.

               Thomas is distracted by one the pictures on the wall of
               Frederic's office.

                         What are you looking at?

                         The fat man in he cartoon.

                         Do you know who that is?

               He points to a CARTOON OF KING LOUIS PHILIPPE by Daumier
               which he has hanging on the wall.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         That is King Louis Philippe, our
                         beloved monarch.

               Thomas goes up to the cartoon to look at it more closely. He
               is very amused.

                         He looks like a big fat pear!

                         Yes he does. It was drawn by Honoré
                         Daumier. The King was so angry with
                         him he put in prison. Do you know
                         what happened then?


                         More cartoonists began drawing the
                         King like a pear and Daumier sold
                         even more copies of his. Eventually
                         the King gave up trying to stop it.
                         Goes to show how pointless
                         censorship is.

                         What is that?

               Thomas points to the print of Delacroix's painting "Liberty
               Leading the People".

                         That is one of my favourite
                         It is Delacroix's "Liberty Leading
                         the People on the Barricade".

                         Why do you like it?

                         I played a very small part in the
                         Revolution of 1830 and this reminds
                         me of what we were trying to
                         achieve. You see that man there,
                         wearing the top hat?


                         His name is Etienne Arago and I
                         went to school with him when I was
                         a boy.

                         No! And what about her?
                            (pointing to the figure of
                         Did you go to school with her too?

                         No of course not! What a foolish
                         question! She is Marianne, the
                         symbol of France and French

                         Is she really leading the people or
                         are the people leading her?

                         That is a very good question
                         Thomas. But now to work! Here is an
                         article I want you to take to the

                                                                CUT TO:

        27     INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY            27

               Thomas runs up the stairs and enters Frederic's office with a
               large stack of the morning's newspapers.

                         Good morning monsieur! Here are
                         today's papers.

                         Excellent! Let's see what the
                         Minister for Trade has to say this
                         morning. He is always good for a
                         laugh early in the morning!

               Frederic begins to read the major government daily The

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Ah! He never disappoints. Here M.
                         Gridaine, the Minister for Trade,
                         tells us "it is imperative that we
                         increase the amount of work for
                         French workers by imposing tariffs
                         on cheaper foreign goods".
                         Excellent. Here is the topic for
                         this week's article. Tell me
                         Thomas, should we increase the
                         amount of work done by French

                         Yes, of course monsieur.


                         So there will be more jobs for
                         French workers to do.

                         Rubbish! What if I had tied your
                         right hand behind your back this
                         morning before you came to the
                         office. How long would it have
                         taken you to bring up all those

                         Twice as long monsieur because I
                         would have had to make two trips.
                         No! Probably a third because I
                         would have dropped some and had to
                         have gone back for them.

                         But according to the logic of the
                         Minister for Trade M. Gridaine the
                         more work you and I have to do to
                         accomplish anything, the better off
                         we would be. So, I should tie your
                         hand behind you back every day!
                         In fact, the good Minister says, if
                         we tie every French worker's hands
                         and every French consumer's hands
                         behind their backs the whole Nation
                         would have more work to do and we
                         would all be made better off!

                         But that would be stupid monsieur.


                         Because if I had taken only one
                         trip to bring up your papers then I
                         could have had time to do something
                         else for you monsieur.

                         Exactly. And you said you didn't
                         know anything about economics! I'm
                         going to write that up and when I'm
                         done you can take it to the

               Molinari pokes his head into Frederic's office.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Frederic, I just wanted to let you
                         know that Hippolyte Castille is
                         holding one of his salons on the
                         rue Saint-Lazare tomorrow night.
                         Would you like to come?

                         I would indeed!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Excellent! Here's the address.
                            (he passes Frederic a piece
                              of paper)
                         The dress is "rustic radical" so
                         you should fit in quite well!

               The two laugh.

                                                                CUT TO:


               Frederic walks along the majestic rue Saint-Lazare and sees
               the construction of the new and very LARGE SAINT-LAZARE
               RAILWAY STATION at the end of the street. There is great
               activity with coaches dropping passengers off at the station
               and people milling about.

               He comes to a stately residence which used to be the
               residence of the Archbishop of Paris but which is now owned
               by the radical journalist HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE. He enters the
               main door which is unlocked and unattended and climbs the
               stairs towards a room filled with noisy conversation. He is
               greeted at the door by Molinari.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Ah, Frederic! Good to see you. Give
                         me your hat.

               He takes Frederic's large country hat and puts it on a chair
               by the door next to other more working class hats.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D)
                         Let me introduce you to some of the
                         key players in our little drama!

               The two enter the room which reveals that it was once a
               luxuriously appointed room but which is now filled with cheap
               furniture. Marks on the wall show where paintings once hung
               but which is now bare. There are about a dozen people in the
               room drinking and conversing. There are no servants but a
               table with bottles of various kinds to which the guests help
               themselves. In one corner is Hippolyte Castille surrounded by
               a group of men who are dressed rather shabbily.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D)
                         Let me introduce you to our host
                         Hippolyte. He edits the journal I
                         write for. Perhaps he will publish
                         some of your stuff as well.
                         Hippolyte, let me introduce you to
                         Frederic Bastiat, our newest find!

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         Nice to meet you Frederic! You
                         don't look like an economist, which
                         is a relief.
                            (they all laugh)

                         I'm not sure what an economist is
                         supposed to look like! Tell me!

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         I suppose a bit formal and
                         "bookish." And not rough looking
                         around the edges.

                            (he gestures to his outfit
                              of clothes)
                         This may seem like rough edges but
                         they hide a much sharper edge

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         The sharp edge of economic reality

                         Perhaps! Is there anything sharper
                         than that?
                            (they laugh)

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         We were just discussing the trial
                         of the carpenters which is
                         underway. I've asked Gustave to
                         cover it for the journal and he has
                         been sitting in on the trial every
                         day. What is your view of the
                         matter? Should carpenters be
                         allowed to form their own union?

                         Do you want me to answer wearing my
                         economist's hat?

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         Of course! What other hats do you
                            (they laugh)

                         Many! The first point is rather
                         obvious I think. Every person has
                         the right to form a voluntary
                         association to pursue their own
                         interests, whatever they might be,
                         so long as they are peaceful.

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         Bravo! Well said sir! But that is
                         against the law!

                         As it currently stands.

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         It was enshrined in French law
                         during the Revolution, and it might
                         take another revolution to change

                         Unfortunately, it often does.

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         You should go with Gustave one day
                         to see the trial. Hear the sort of
                         dreadful arguments the state is
                         putting forward to deny workers the
                         right of free association. It is
                         quite enlightening.

                         I'd like to. Maybe I could also
                         write something about it.

                                   HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE
                         Excellent We might even publish it
                         if it is any good!
                            (they laugh)

               As they are talking ETIENNE ARAGO the radical playwright and
               old school mate of Frederic's walks up to the group. 

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Frederic, my old friend! How are

                         Etienne! What are you doing here!

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         What am I doing here? I live here!
                         I should be the one asking you?
                         What dragged you out of your
                         beloved Mugron to come to this cess
                         pit of a Babylon?

                         I've come to defeat the oligarchs
                         who run France!

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         That's my old Frederic. Tilting at
                         windmills again! Which set of
                         oligarch's did you have in mind?
                         The aristocrats, the big
                         landowners, the manufacturers, or
                         the army generals?

                         Well, all of them actually. But to
                         begin with just the big landowners
                         and the manufacturers!

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Good idea! Start small and then
                         work your way up!

                         That's the plan. First we abolish
                         their subsidies and monopolies and
                         tariff protection, and then we go
                         for the jugular!

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO

                         But what are you doing Etienne? It
                         has been so long since our school
                         days at Sorze.

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         I have a new play coming out but we
                         are having trouble getting
                         permission to put it on the stage.

                         Were you rude to the ruling elite?

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO

                         Who this time?

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         The lazy, good for nothing
                         aristocrats who produce nothing and
                         live off the people's hard work.
                         The censors say I was rude to them!

                         I hope it was more than just rude!

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Of course! Possibly even

                         Not you! Never!
                            (they laugh)

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         So what are you doing nowadays to
                         further the cause of the
                         revolution? I hope you haven't
                         given up on all our childhood
                         dreams of changing the world!

                         Now that you mention it, there are
                         a couple of things I've been doing.

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Do tell!

                         The first is free trade.

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Ah! You have picked up Cobden's
                         ideas about helping the poor by
                         lowering the cost of the bread they

                         Yes. But it also goes to heart of
                         the wealth and the power of the
                         oligarchs who own the big landed

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Yes. And the second?

                         Have you heard of the penny post in

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Yes, vaguely.

                         Well Cobden and his friends were
                         behind that as well. They abolished
                         the high cost of sending a letter
                         or newspaper through the post so
                         that ordinary working people could
                         afford to keep in touch with their

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         What a great idea! So sending
                         letters is no longer the privilege
                         of the elite.

                         No. We should do something like
                         that here in France.

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Mmm. Maybe we could ... While you
                         are here there is someone else you
                         should meet. He is a crazy
                         socialist who has been making waves
                         recently. Let me introduce you to
                         Louis Blanc.

               Etienne takes Frederic over to another group of people who
               have gathered around Louis Blanc who is lecturing them about
               his ideas about workers organising their own labour.

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         Just imagine the wealth we could
                         have if we could get rid of the
                         middle men, the capitalist who
                         siphons off the profits and the
                         bankers who suck up the surpluses
                         by charging exorbitant interest.

               There are murmurs of part approval and part disapproval by
               the people around Blanc.

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         Pardon me Louis, but I would like
                         to introduced to an old school mate
                         of mine, Frederic Bastiat. He has
                         recently arrived in Paris and is an
                         economist. You two should hit it
                         off like a house on fire!

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         How do you do M. Bastiat! An
                         economist you say? Where do you
                         stand on the labour question?

                         How do you do Monsieur. I think I
                         stand with you on the ultimate aim,
                         which is allow workers to acquire
                         the greatest amount of benefit from
                         their own labour, but we differ on
                         the best way to achieve that.

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         What do you mean?

                         Well, I want to remove all the
                         legal obstacles which lie in the
                         way of workers starting their own
                         business, or joining with others to
                         make and sell things on the market.
                         Whereas you want the state to use
                         its powers to regulate how
                         businesses are run and who gets to
                         enjoy the profits created by those

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         That is true. We have to level the
                         playing field first before we can
                         permit the laissez-faire policies
                         you and the economists are
                         enamoured with. The state has its
                         role and then we can allow things
                         to play out once we have things

                         Monsieur, I think that is a very
                         naive view. Once the state has
                         "organised" labour as you suggest
                         why would it withdraw? Why would it
                         ever give up any power it might
                         hold? Far from protecting your
                         workers from exploitation by
                         capitalists and bankers, your state
                         would become the universal

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         I don't think so Monsieur. That is
                         the naive view not mine. I saw how
                         workers are treated in the iron
                         foundries in Arras. That was
                         brutal, absolutely brutal. We can't
                         allow that sort of thing to
                         continue. Once we have changed the
                         way people think about the proper
                         organisation of labour there will
                         be no going back to the old days of
                         ruthless competition, profit
                         taking, and the exploitation of
                         workers. We will have a completely
                         new kind of society which will be
                         nothing like the old one we have

                         How will work be organised in this
                         new society you have in mind?

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         The guiding principle should be
                         "from each according to his
                         ability, to each according to his
                         needs." And since most workers have
                         very similar needs, they should all
                         be paid an equal wage.

                         That sounds very naive to me.

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         Then Monsieur, we will have to
                         differ on that. Good evening.

               Louis Blanc walks away.

                                                                CUT TO:

        29     INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY            29

               We see a wagon from the printers dropping off three bundles
               of printed material at the Free Trade Association office. It
               is the new weekly newspaper of the French Free Trade
               Association, "The Free Trader", edited by Frederic. Thomas
               brings them inside and runs up the stairs to show Frederic.

                         Monsieur! They have arrived!


               He takes a copy of the issue from the first pile and opens it

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         This one is for our subscribers. I
                         will give you their addresses and
                         you can begin delivering them. 

               He takes one from the second pile which is a single sheet.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         This one is the flyer we will hand
                         out in the street. We will ask for
                         a small coin as a contribution but
                         give it away if you have to.
                         We want as many people as possible
                         to read it.

                         What this one for?

               He points to the third pile of large posters.

                         That is the poster we will paste up
                         on the walls around town.

               Frederic takes one of the posters and pins it to the wall
               behind his desk. It is the statement of principles of the
               Free Trade Association.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         This is to reminds of what we are
                         here for. Now get going. I'll
                         deliver the magazine to some of our
                         bigger supporters. You take that
                         pile of leaflets and start handing
                         them out on the street.

               We see Thomas handing out flyers on the street corner to
               passersby. The camera zooms to show the poster on Frederic's
               office wall.

               The Association for Free Trade

               Declaration of Principles
               (10 May 1846)
               The Association seeks the total destruction of the
               protectionist régime and its replacement with a régime of
               FREE TRADE.
               The reasons for this are the following:
               - the right to TRADE is a natural right held by every
               individual, just like their natural right to own PROPERTY
               - to deprive an individual of the right to trade the things
               they have created or acquired with someone anywhere in the
               world is to violate this right and is thus an act of LEGAL
               PLUNDER and is UNJUST
               - interference with this right to trade jeopardizes the PEACE
               between nations by disrupting the relationships that unite
               - governments have the right to impose low rates of tax for
               FISCAL reasons only, anything above this holds the community
               to ransom for the benefit of a SINGLE CLASS
               The Association will pursue its goals in a constitutional and
               legal manner outside of all existing political parties.
               It embraces the cause of eternal justice, peace, union,
               unfettered communication and fraternity among all peoples as

               We also see Frederic pinning up the first of the flyers on
               his office wall, "The Right Hand and the Left Hand", which
               over the coming months will gradually be covered by them.

                                                                CUT TO:

        30     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            30

               We see Thomas and some young friends with a long handled
               broom pasting the poster of The Declaration of Principles on
               walls around the city.

                                                                CUT TO:

        31     INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY            31

               Frederic is at his desk reading the latest issue of the
               newspaper of the protectionist Association for the Defence of
               National Labour put out by the Mimerel Committee.

                         Thomas! Here is another person who
                         never disappoints me. He provides
                         me with a never ending source of
                         sophisms to refute!

                         Who monsieur?

                         August Mimerel. He heads the
                         Association for the Defence of
                         National Labour. In the latest
                         issue of their journal he has a
                         long list of reasons why the
                         government should increase the
                         tariffs on imported textiles. Can
                         you guess what things his factory
                         produces Thomas?

                         Textiles, monsieur?

                         Yes! What a surprise! I have an
                         idea for our next article.
                         Can you think of something that
                         everyone uses every day but doesn't
                         pay for which some powerful
                         manufacturer would like us to pay
                         for if they could get away with it?

                         The air we breathe?

                         Not bad. But it would be hard to
                         make us pay for that unless the
                         government forced us to wear a bag
                         over our heads.

                         What about sunshine?

                         That might work! There are
                         manufacturers of artificial light
                         like lamp and candle makers who
                         might like to get the government to
                         grant them a monopoly. Give me a

               Frederic begins scribbling a draft essay.

                                                                CUT TO:

        32     INT. A COURT ROOM IN PARIS - DAY                        32

               Frederic is with Molinari in a court where the trial of two
               Parisian carpenters is underway. They have been charged with
               violating the law banning the formation of an association
               founded with the express intention of increasing the wages or
               improving the working conditions of workers. The court room
               is half filled with workers who have come to support their
               colleagues. The judge is about to bring down his verdict.

                         We have heard testimony from both
                         sides in this matter. There has
                         been no dispute concerning the main
                         points of the case. The carpenters
                         before the bench do not dispute the
                         fact that they intended to and in
                         fact did successfully form an
                         association, a "trade union" if you
                         will, with the intention of
                         violating the law banning such
                         organisations. ...

               There is booing and jeering from some workers in the court

                                   JUDGE (CONT'D)
                         Order! There will be quiet in my

               There is more booing and jeering but it is more subdued.
               Frederic and Molinari look around the court and see the anger
               on the faces of the workers who realise that the case will
               not go their way. Molinari whispers to Frederic.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         This is rigged! They will not be
                         allowed to get away with this.

                         Not until the law is changed.

               The Judge resumes his ruling.

                         The only defence, if you could call
                         it that, was the argument that the
                         law was not applied equally, that
                         associations of business owners and
                         manufacturers exist and that they
                         also violate the statutes. This may
                         be true but it is beyond the
                         jurisdiction of this court, which
                         is to investigate the matter before
                         it, and only this matter. I
                         therefore rule that the two
                         defendants will be fined 1,000
                         francs each ...

               There is loud muttering of disapproval among the workers in
               the court room

                                   JUDGE (CONT'D)
                         Quiet! And 3 months imprisonment.

               There are angry shouts and people stand up in protest at the

                                   JUDGE (CONT'D)
                         Quiet! The court is adjourned!

               Workers in the room rush up to console their two comrades who
               have been convicted. Molinari and Bastiat go up with them and
               one of the carpenters recognises Molinari and talks to him.

                                   FIRST CARPENTER
                         Thank you for coming M. Molinari.
                         It is good to see a friendly face

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I'm sorry things went this way. Our
                         magazine will write a full report
                         on it. People will know about this

                                   FIRST CARPENTER
                         Thank you!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         We have also raised some money in
                         an appeal which will help pay your

                                   FIRST CARPENTER
                         Thank you Monsieur!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         There is nothing we can do about
                         the prison term.

                                   SECOND CARPENTER
                         What about our families?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I'm sorry for you, but the state
                         doesn't care about your families.

               The two carpenters are dragged out of the court room in
               chains by court officers.

                                                                CUT TO:


               The wagon from the printers drops off another pile of printed
               material for Frederic.

                         Here is the latest one Monsieur


               He takes a copy of the latest flyer and pins it to the
               growing collection on the wall behind his desk.
               The title is "PETITION OF THE MAKERS OF CANDLES" He begins to
               read it out loud in an exaggerated and mocking manner, and as
               he does so he keeps pointing his finger to the sky.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         "Petition of the manufacturers of
                         tallow candles, wax candles, lamps,
                         candlesticks, street lamps,
                         snuffers, extinguishers and
                         producers of tallow, oil, resin,
                         alcohol, and in general everything
                         that relates to lighting. To
                         Honorable Members of the Chamber of
                         Deputies. We are suffering from the
                         intolerable competition of a
                         foreign rival whose situation with
                         regard to the production of light,
                         it appears, is so far superior to
                         ours that it is flooding our
                         national market at a price that is
                         astonishingly low for, as soon as
                         he comes on the scene, our sales
                         cease, all consumers go to him, and
                         a sector of French industry whose
                         ramifications are countless is
                         suddenly afflicted with total

               He pauses at the end and asks:

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Do you know this will end Thomas?

                         I can guess monsieur.


                         They want the government to ban
                         sunlight so they can have increased
                         sales of their candles.

                         Exactly. Get your friends and start
                         handing this one out. It should
                         cause a bit of amusement.

               We see Thomas and friends handing it out on the street. They
               call out "Read about how the Protectionists want to tax our
               sunlight"! People stop, read it quickly, laugh, and then go
               about their business.

                                                                CUT TO:

        34     INT. HORTENSE CHEUVREUX'S SALON - EVENING               34

               Frederic attends Madame HORTENSE CHEUVREUX'S SALON for the
               first time. It is in a luxurious home in the centre of Paris
               and it is attended by the cream of the liberal minded
               cultural and political elites. He is welcomed in the foyer by
               Madame Cheuvreux.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         M. Bastiat! Welcome! I'm so glad
                         you could come.

                         My pleasure Madame!

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         There are so many people I want you
                         to meet. Where to begin? I know,
                         Mlle. Jenny Lind is about to sing
                         one of the songs from Verdi's new
                         opera, "The Robbers." You'll love
                         it. She has been the talk of London

               She rushes him to one of the many rooms in the house where
               people have gathered. In this room the Swedish opera
               sensation JENNY LIND has just started SINGING AN ARIA from
               "The Robbers" "Tu del mio Carlo al seno" (Blessed spirit, you
               have flown to the bosom of my Carlo) in which Amalia sings of
               her love for Carlo who has joined a robber band which is
               terrorising the countryside.  She is in her mid 20s and is
               very attractive and flirtatious. After she has finished
               singing Hortense introduces her to Frederic.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX (CONT'D)
                         Mlle. Lind, I want you to meet a
                         friend of mine the economist
                         Frederic Bastiat.

                                   JENNY LIND
                         How nice to meet you. I've never
                         met an economist before. How did
                         you like the song?

                         I enjoyed it very much. It deals
                         with an interesting subject, how to
                         deal with members of one's own
                         family who have turned to

                                   JENNY LIND
                         Indeed! I've heard some people say
                         that you economists sometimes
                         defend criminality.

                         How so?

                                   JENNY LIND
                         By defending smugglers who break
                         the law by selling contraband
                         tobacco for example.

                         Well, not exactly! We criticise the
                         law which prevents people freely
                         trading across the border. It is
                         this bad law which turns peaceful
                         traders into criminals. They commit
                         no real crime. There is no victim
                         who is injured.

                                   JENNY LIND
                         Isn't the state the victim because
                         it misses out on getting its taxes?

                         No. I would say the real victim is
                         the consumer who is forced to pay
                         too much for his tobacco.

                                   JENNY LIND
                         A curious way to see things!

                         Perhaps M. Verdi will write an
                         opera one day about smugglers
                         instead of robbers. I'm sure you
                         would sing that just as

               Frederic begins humming the refrain from Beranger's song "The

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         "Curse them, curse them, the
                         revenue men ..."

                                   JENNY LIND
                         What is that you are singing?

                         A song I know about smugglers.

                                   JENNY LIND
                         Curiouser and curiouser. A friend
                         told me that you have also written
                         about my voice in one of your
                         theoretical articles. Is that

                         Yes. Mlle. Lind.

                                   JENNY LIND
                         Tell me why an economist would be
                         interested in my voice?

                         Probably not just your voice Mlle.!
                            (she smiles at him
                         But your voice particularly because
                         of its rarity and the service it
                         provides to others.

                                   JENNY LIND
                         What on earth do you mean by

                         You provide the person who pays for
                         a ticket to one of your concerts
                         the service of being delightfully
                         entertained for an evening. People
                         are wiling to pay for that service

                                   JENNY LIND
                         And other services too I can

                         Yes, quite.
                            (he laughs)
                         But the rarer and the more
                         beautiful the voice the more they
                         are willing to pay for that
                         service. It is quite simple really.

                                   JENNY LIND
                         For you perhaps, M. Bastiat!

                         No really! The service I might
                         provide others by singing my song
                         about smugglers is much less
                         valuable than you singing your song
                         about robbers. No one wants to hear
                         my feeble voice. If they paid to
                         hear me sing I would be guilty of
                         robbing them of the opportunity of
                         hearing yours. But lots of people
                         are wiling to pay to hear you,
                         regardless of the content of the
                         song. So you can rightly charge
                         what the market will bear to do

                                   JENNY LIND
                         And what if I used my voice to sing
                         your song about smugglers?

                         That would double the value of your
                         service I'm sure Madame. I for one
                         would pay a lot of money to hear

                                   JENNY LIND
                         And it wouldn't be contraband,
                         would it?

                         No Mlle. Lind!

                                   JENNY LIND
                         M. Bastiat, we will have to talk
                         again sometime about such
                         intriguing topics. In the meantime,
                         send me a copy of your smugglers
                         song. I'm intrigued!

                         It would be my pleasure.

               Mme Cheuvreux has become a little anxious about all the
               attention Lind has been paying Frederic and decides to break
               up their conversation. She comes up to Frederic to introduce
               him to the mathematician and astronomer FRANOIS ARAGO who is
               in the adjoining room.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Isn't she delightful? 

                            (a bit too

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Let me take you to Franois Arago.
                         He has been asking about you. How
                         do you know him?

                         I went to school with his younger
                         brother Etienne a long time ago and
                         we still keep in touch.

               They come to a small drawing room where FRANOIS ARAGO is
               talking to a group of people.

                                   FRANOIS ARAGO
                         To answer your question madame, we
                         are building a number of new
                         telescopes for the Paris
                         Observatory in order to track the
                         movement of these comets which we
                         believe have a regular, periodic
                         obits around the sun. Ah. I see
                         Frederic has arrived! Excuse me a
                         moment. Good evening Frederic. It
                         has been a long time.

                         Yes, indeed it has. I saw Etienne a
                         few days ago. I see he is in
                         trouble again.

                                   FRANOIS ARAGO
                         In trouble as usual. He has written
                         a play denouncing the Aristocrats
                         for not working productively like
                         everybody else. He says all their
                         chateaux should be turned into
                         factories and they should take
                         their turn working on the machines.
                         For some reason, this has annoyed
                         the censors. They won't let him put
                         it on stage.

                         That's typical. So what will he do?

                                   FRANOIS ARAGO
                         He has been giving private readings
                         of it. What are you up to Frederic?

                         I've been working on trying to
                         calculate the economic impact
                         government policies have on various
                         kinds of economic activity. Things
                         like the impact that tariffs have
                         on the way people spend or don't
                         spend their money. How it diverts
                         spending from one good to another
                         and what this flow on effect does
                         to production in general.

                                   FRANOIS ARAGO

                         But I am stuck on the mathematics
                         of it all.

                                   FRANOIS ARAGO
                         Neither you nor Etienne were very
                         good at maths as I recall. Too busy
                         writing poetry and playing the

                         Maybe so! But I would like your
                         help on figuring out how to
                         calculate the sum of effects as
                         they diminish in size over an
                         infinite number of iterations.

                                   FRANOIS ARAGO
                         That sounds pretty straight
                         forward. When you have some free
                         time come and visit me at the
                         Observatory and I'll show you

                         Thanks. I'll do that!

               He moves around the mansion taking in all the luxury of the
               paintings and furnishings and the sophisticated conversations
               of the guests. He comes across a group of people talking to
               the catholic priest and philosopher JOSEPH GRATRY. Frederic
               listens in.

                                   JOSEPH GRATRY
                         The problem is that reason has been
                         seized by liberal sophists and used
                         against the Church in a way which
                         is both damaging and false.
                         It is our task to refute these
                         sophists and rescue the Church from
                         this anarchy of words which are
                         being hurled at it. I see one of
                         those sophists has just entered the
                         room. Good evening M. Bastiat.

                         M. Gratry. You misinterpret my
                         work. I am a debunker of sophisms,
                         not a disseminator of sophisms

                                   JOSEPH GRATRY
                         What sophisms do you debunk then,

                         The lies and half-truths which the
                         rich and powerful tell the people
                         in order to confuse them and so
                         more easily take their money.

                                   JOSEPH GRATRY
                         That would be a noble mission
                         monsieur, if you limited your
                         debunking to the sophisms of the
                         powerful manufacturers and
                         landowners, or to the sophisms of
                         the wicked socialists who are
                         corrupting our workers. But you go
                         too far when you attack the so
                         called "theocratic sophisms" of the
                         Church as you did in a recent

                         I apply the same economic reasoning
                         to exposing the wealthy landowner
                         who claims he is helping the poor
                         when he forces them to pay more for
                         food, as I do to the priest who
                         makes fraudulent claims about the
                         afterlife and forces the poor to
                         hand over a tithe to the Church in
                         order to secure a spot in Heaven.
                         Both are forms of plunder in my

                                   JOSEPH GRATRY
                         Then that is what I call false
                         reasoning because these two things
                         are entirely different in their

                         I disagree. In their essence they
                         are the same. They both use the
                         power of the state to force people
                         to hand over their money against
                         their will. They are both acts of
                         plunder and they are justified by
                         sophistical arguments.

                                   JOSEPH GRATRY

                         The main difference is that the
                         landowners and manufacturers have
                         only been plundering the people for
                         a couple of hundred years. The
                         Church has been doing it for over a
                         thousand years and is thus much
                         more experienced in duping the
                         people with false arguments.

                                   JOSEPH GRATRY
                         I see there is no possibility of me
                         changing your mind on this topic?

                         I seriously doubt it.

                                   JOSEPH GRATRY
                         Then good evening monsieur.

                         Good evening.

               Frederic walks about the mansion admiring the paintings and
               fine furniture. Each room he passes has a different
               conversation underway and walks past several looking for an
               interesting one to join. He comes across a room where the
               historian and political theorist ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE is
               holding forth about his views of democracy in America.
               Frederic enters the room.

                         So you see madame, it is not a
                         matter of whether or not I
                         personally like democracy, it is a
                         question of what do we do given its
                         inevitable triumph, at least in the
                         short to medium term. Ah, I see
                         Monsieur Bastiat has joined us. He
                         has been causing some excitement
                         among our economist friends
                         recently. What say you sir?

                         I'm afraid I haven't been to
                         America sir, so I'm not sure my
                         opinion would be worth much.

                         Possibly, but you have taken quite
                         an interest in the spread of
                         democracy in England and the impact
                         it is having on their economic
                         policies, isn't that true?

                         Yes. But the two cases are quite
                         different. The is no ruling elite
                         or oligarchy in America, outside of
                         the slave owning south, so the
                         people there do not have that
                         battle to fight. There is only half
                         a democracy in England at the
                         moment so they have not yet been
                         able to get rid of their ruling
                         oligarchy. It is only a matter of
                         time before they do, in my opinion.

                         Yes, but my point is that whether
                         in America or England the people
                         can't be trusted with political
                         power because they are not educated
                         sufficiently to use it wisely. They
                         are too fickle and emotional.

                         Whereas the ruling and presumably
                         educated elites in France and
                         elsewhere in Europe do rule wisely
                         and justly? I'm sure we can all
                         find examples to the contrary, of
                         unjust and unwise rule by elites.
                         Like serfdom, protectionism,
                         conscription. I could go on.

                         Of course, but when change comes it
                         must come slowly and in an orderly
                         fashion otherwise things can get
                         out of control, as we only know too
                         well in France.

                         I agree. But if change is too slow
                         it can also lead to things getting
                         out of control.

                         Interesting. So you are like
                         Goldilocks then. Change can't be
                         too hot or too cold, but has to be
                         just right. How amusing!

                         Not quite, sir. I think I prefer my
                         change to be on the hot side.

                         Ah! Spoken like a true southerner!

               Frederic and Tocqueville continue arguing and bantering in
               this vein for some time until Frederic excuses himself and
               decides to leave the Cheuvreux's home after an eventful

                                                                CUT TO:

        35     EXT. THE KING'S PALACE - DAY                            35

               August 1846. Frederic and Thomas are standing on a street
               corner not far from the TUILERIES PALACE which is the
               residence of KING LOUIS PHILIPPE. They have been handing out
               a leaflet with the title "The Kings must Disarm". People are
               gathering to watch a BIG MILITARY PARADE in the palace
               grounds to mark the 16th anniversary of his coronation in
               August 1830 and the completion of the new military wall which
               has been built around Paris.

               We see THE KING standing on a balcony over the parade ground
               acknowledging his elite troops as they march past in
               formation. The people are not very enthusiastic when someone
               calls for a cheer for the King.

               We next see the King getting into an elaborate carriage which
               drives off in the direction of THE MILITARY WALL WHICH
               SURROUNDS PARIS. As it approaches the wall it pulls off onto
               the access road which runs along the inside of the wall for
               its entire length of 33 km (20 miles). Along the top of the
               wall soldiers in full dress uniform are lined up 1 metre
               apart from each other as far as the eye can see. As the
               King's carriage approaches they present arms and shout "VIVE
               LE ROI" (Long live the King). 

               The camera follows the King's carriage for several miles
               showing the enormous size of the wall and its massive

               As the crowd disperses we see Frederic and Thomas resume
               their work handing out leaflets. Thomas says something to
               Frederic in a whisper.

                         He really does look like a big fat
                            (they both laugh)

                                                                CUT TO:

        36     INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY            36

               A few weeks later. Gustave is in the office to talk to
               Frederic about advertising posters for the upcoming public
               meeting of the Free Trade Association. Frederic has bought
               another DAUMIER PRINT and is hanging it on the wall behind
               his desk alongside the other Daumier print.

                         What is this one about monsieur?

                         Have a closer look and tell me what
                         you see.

                         The pear King is sitting on a sort
                         of throne in front of the National
                         Assembly building.

                         Look more closely. Is it really a

                         Mmm... It looks a bit like a

                         Yes. And what is he eating?

                         People are throwing money into
                         baskets and some other people are
                         lifting them up and pouring the
                         money into his month.

                         Yes. The people are paying their
                         taxes and he is a tax-eater or a
                         budget-eater. What is coming out of
                         the bottom of the "throne"?

                         Pieces of paper.

                         Look more closely!

                            (he peers more closely at
                              the print)
                         It says "Government Subsidy" and
                         the other says "Monopoly
                         Privilege". That's funny. Did
                         Daumier go to jail for that one

                         Yes. But not for very long.

               Molinari has come over to Frederic's desk.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I hate to interrupt these
                         scatological reflections on
                         monarchical economic practices but
                         we need to discuss the advertising
                         for the meeting at Montesquieu

                         Yes, of course.

               They pour over a draft of the BIG POSTER for the Meeting.

                                                                CUT TO:

        37     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            37

               Thomas is with some friends PASTING UP POSTERS advertising
               the first big public meeting of the Free Trade Association in
               Paris. They walk past a wall where they had put up posters
               earlier in they day. They have been TORN DOWN and are hanging
               in strips off the wall. They replace them with new ones and
               continue on their way.

                                                                CUT TO:

        38     INT. THE MONTESQUIEU HALL IN PARIS - EVENING            38

               September 1846. The Hall is a large 2,000 PERSON CAPACITY
               concert hall which is also used for public gatherings. It is
               rapidly filling up. The entrance and foyer have many tables
               filled with Free Trade Association literature, such as books
               and pamphlets written by Frederic and others. Thomas is at
               the entrance handing out leaflets to the people coming into
               the hall.
               A large poster at the entrance lists the program of speakers
               for the evening's event: the President of the Association the
               DUKE OF HARCOURT, the economist Michel Chevalier, the poet
               and liberal politician ALPHONSE LAMARTINE, Frederic, and a
               working class printer M. PEUPIN.

               The front of the Hall is decorated with a large banner with
               the slogan of the FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION written on it "Let
               us live our lives at the lowest possible prices," "We should
               pay taxes only to the state," "Goods are bought with other

               The front few rows have been cordoned off for members of the
               aristocracy and senior politicians. The cheap seats on the
               mezzanine level are also filling up with ordinary people many
               of who are working class.

               The Duke of Harcourt rises and walks to the lectern.

                                   DUC D'HARCOURT
                         Distinguished visitors, Ladies and
                         Gentlemen, fellow citizens! Welcome
                         to this historic moment when the
                         French Free Trade movement is
                         formally launched.

               A cheer goes up from about half the people in the Hall.

                                   DUC D'HARCOURT (CONT'D)
                         We believe this is a movement that
                         can and will change France for
                         ever. It will usher in new
                         opportunities for prosperity for
                         all classes and will lessen the
                         antagonisms which have been
                         building up between nations as a
                         result of the pernicious policy of
                         protectionism. We have an
                         outstanding group of speakers for
                         you this evening. Let us begin with
                         some words from one of the leading
                         economists in France, Professor
                         Michel Chevalier from the Collge
                         de France.

               There is moderate applause from the crowd who are not sure
               what to expect.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Thank you! There is so much an
                         economist could say about the many
                         positive effects free trade has on
                         our prosperity.
                         For example, there is the benefit
                         of the spread of an international
                         division of labour when nations get
                         to specialise in producing what
                         they do best, the spreading of risk
                         in times of a poor harvest, such as
                         the Irish are now experiencing, as
                         regions where there is plenty can
                         export their surpluses to places
                         which have shortages. I could go on
                         with some more examples, but I

               There is some laughter from the audience who are relieved he
               promises not to lecture them on economics for much longer.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D)
                         But tonight I want to focus on one
                         aspect which many of you may not
                         have thought about before. That is
                         the undeniable fact that all of us
                         are both consumers AND producers.
                         We all work at something, therefore
                         we are producers. We have or
                         produce something which we sell to
                         others, even if is just our labour.
                         On the other hand, we are all
                         consumers. We buy things others
                         have produced such as our food, our
                         clothing, or our housing. Not one
                         of us is just a consumer or just a
                         producer. We are all consumers and
                         as consumers, free trade is our
                         best friend because it ensures that
                         everything we consume will be
                         available at the lowest possible
                         price. We can live, as our
                         colleague Lamartine has put it so
                            (he points to the banner
                              above his head)
                         "la vie ˆ bon marché", let us live
                         our lives at the lowest possible
                         prices. Our protectionist opponents
                         argue that as producers living in
                         France we should all be in favour
                         of tariffs which raise the prices
                         of the goods we produce, but they
                         forget that we are all consumers
                         and not all of us work in
                         industries which can get the
                         government to raise the prices of
                         the things we produce.
                         So, outside of a few tens of
                         thousands of privileged workers and
                         business owners, we, the other 36
                         million citizens of France, have to
                         pay higher prices for everything we
                         consume. This is economic madness
                         and it is unjust!

               There is a loud cheer from the audience at his closing

                                   DUC D'HARCOURT
                         Thank you professor Chevalier. Our
                         next speaker is perhaps our
                         favourite living poet, Alphonse

               A very loud cheer and great applause fills the Hall as
               Lamartine approaches the lectern.

                         Thank you my friends! I am very
                         happy to be here tonight to add my
                         name to the growing list of those
                         who are urging a radical change in
                         our economic policy from the
                         backwardness which is protectionism
                         to the new and progressive policy
                         of international free trade. I have
                         no head for numbers, this "algebra
                         of political economy," 

               The audience laughs.

                                   LAMARTINE (CONT'D)
                         ... about which those scholars like
                         Monsieur Chevalier are far more
                         knowledgeable. Instead I want to
                         talk to you tonight about the moral
                         dimension which lies behind free
                         trade, that aspect of free trade
                         which first made it attractive to
                         me. I remember sitting one day on
                         the benches in the National
                         Assembly, listening to some boring
                         speech on tariff policy.

               There is an ironic cheer from some members of the audience
               who share his dim view of economics.

                                   LAMARTINE (CONT'D)
                         When I for the first time took a
                         close look at the legislation which
                         governs our policy of tariffs. It
                         can be found in this book.

               He holds up the heavy 400 page volume which contains the
               legislation governing French tariff policy.

                                   LAMARTINE (CONT'D)
                         This enormous, immense, infinite,
                         confused, irrational volume, this
                         apocalypse of the protectionist
                         system, regulates every single
                         aspect of our economic life, from
                         the oil from the smallest oil seed
                         up to the oil we get from the
                         largest whale, from the steel in
                         the tiniest needle used for sowing
                         lace up to the largest ship's mast
                         in our merchant fleet. It tries to
                         regulate every single aspect of our
                         national economic life, and to do
                         this it requires a virtual army of
                         tens of thousands of bureaucrats
                         and tax collectors who push and
                         prod their way through our bags at
                         every border we cross, and force us
                         to fill out endless forms when we
                         pay our taxes or government fees.
                         The people of France are being
                         crushed by this bureaucratic
                         burden. It must end! Let the next
                         revolution, the revolution of free
                         trade, begin and sweep all away
                         this before it crushes our very

               Another loud cheer goes up and the applause lasts for several

                                   DUC D'HARCOURT
                         Our next speaker is Monsieur
                         Frederic Bastiat, the Secretary of
                         the Free Trade Association and a
                         Member of the Institute.

               There is only polite applause as the audience does not know

                         Ladies and Gentlemen, when I first
                         came to Paris from my native
                         Gascony I visited your lovely
                         Botanic Gardens. I had heard about
                         the monkey cage and wanted to see
                         it because I had never seen monkeys
                         before. In my part of the world we
                         have bulls of course, which some
                         people fight in rings, which is as
                         good as any place I suppose, if you
                         must fight bulls.

               There is some laughter from people in the Hall.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         We also have Basque smugglers who
                         come over the Spanish border to
                         sell contraband tobacco, and they
                         get shot at by Customs officers,
                         which makes it a dangerous sport
                         like bull fighting, at least for
                         the smugglers

               There is more laughter as people begin to warm to him.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         But here, in Paris, I wanted to see
                         the monkeys. I visited them, at
                         feeding time. Each monkey was in a
                         separate cage, and I watched as
                         their keepers pushed a bowl of food
                         into their cage through a little
                         door. You might think as I did at
                         first that each of the monkeys
                         would eat what had been given to
                         him. But this does not happen. You
                         see them all putting their arms
                         through the bars of the cage next
                         to theirs, trying to steal each
                         other's share. There are cries,
                         grimaces, and contortions, in the
                         middle of which some of the bowls
                         are overturned and a lot of food
                         gets spoilt and wasted.
                         Occasionally, one of the larger and
                         wiser monkeys learns to push his
                         bowl into the centre of his cage
                         where the other monkeys can't reach
                         it, and then goes about stealing
                         the food of the monkeys on either
                         side of his cage.
                         This happens every day at feeding
                         time and the net result is an
                         enormous loss of food for the group
                         of monkeys as a whole. 

               The audience has grown quiet and there are looks of
               puzzlement on many people's faces.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         So, you might ask, why I am telling
                         you this story? Perhaps a simple
                         man from the provinces has lost his
                         mind at the Botanical Gardens. But
                         watching this, it occurred to me
                         that this is a perfect example of
                         what the protectionist regime does
                         to us, as French producers and

               Some people in the audience see the joke and begin to laugh.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         It turns us into mutual plunderers,
                         because we seek special privileges
                         like tariffs so we can plunder the
                         food bowls of our neighbours. But
                         what we don't realise is that our
                         neighbours are doing the same to
                         us, trying to get special
                         privileges from the state so they
                         can plunder us in turn. The net
                         result is that we are like the
                         monkeys in the cages where all the
                         bowls get overturned and spoilt. We
                         have to put an end to this madness!

               There is much laughter and applause from the audience as they
               get the joke.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Only under a regime of free trade
                         can we have the largest bowl of
                         food possible and the peace and
                         freedom to enjoy it without having
                         our greedy neighbours try to steal
                         it out of our mouths.

               A heckler calls out from the crowd:

                                   HECKLER 1
                         That is all very well for a bunch
                         of monkeys, but what about real
                         workers like me?

                         The gentleman obviously doesn't
                         like being compared to a monkey! or
                         a mutual plunderer!
                            (the crowd laughs with
                         But you raise a good point

               Frederic turns to the Duke of Harcourt.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         With your permission sir, perhaps
                         we should invite our final speaker
                         to the platform to give the
                         PERSPECTIVE OF A WORKER. M. Peupin
                         is a printer by trade. Monsieur!

                         Thank you Monsieur Bastiat. As he
                         said I am a printer by trade. I
                         have steady work about 10 months a
                         year and on the days I work I can
                         earn between 3 and 4 francs a day,
                         which isn't bad. I can't complain.
                         But what I do complain about is
                         that when you add it all up, all
                         the extra costs caused by tariffs
                         and other subsidies to some
                         favoured producers, on things like
                         cereals for bread, or coal for
                         heating my home, textiles for my
                         children's clothes, or iron for the
                         tools of my trade, I figure it
                         comes to about 75 centimes per day.
                         That is about 25% of my day's
                         income. In my opinion, this is
                         tyrannical, unjust, and immoral.

               There is a loud cheer from the audience and Peupin becomes
               more confident when he realises the crowd is on his side.

                                   PEUPIIN (CONT'D)
                         It is tyrannical because it forces
                         me to buy things from one person
                         rather than another person of my
                         choice; it is unjust because it
                         levies a tax on me for the benefit
                         of another class, and it immoral
                         because it makes me pay more for
                         everyday essentials. That is why I
                         am a supporter of a policy of free

               There is loud applause and cheering, and the evening
               gradually comes to a close. We see people filling out of the
               hall taking literature with them as they leave. We see the
               HECKLER arguing loudly and angrily with Thomas and some of
               the other free traders at the back of the Hall as people

                                                                CUT TO:

        39     INT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - EVENING                      39

               A RECEPTION is underway at the Guillaumin firm's offices to
               celebrate the completion of several important publishing
               ventures. There is a large crowd of people, the new titles
               are spread out on tables, wine and food are being served, and
               there is a lot of noisy conversation taking place.

               Guillaumin bangs his wine glass with a fork to get people's

                         Ladies and gentlemen, if I could
                         have your attention please. Thank
                         you. Tonight we want to celebrate a
                         very successful few months in the
                         publishing activities of the
                         Guillaumin firm. You can see spread
                         out before on the tables our most
                         recent books. There is Gustave de
                         Molinari's marvellous two volume
                         work on the History of Tariffs.

               The crowd claps and this is acknowledged by Gustave de

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         Our multi-volume collection of
                         classics of economic thought is
                         drawing to close with the
                         appearance of works by Malthus,
                         Ricardo, and the Physiocrats.
                            (more applause but less
                         And our best selling title at the
                         moment, Frederic Bastiat's Economic
                            (the crowd applauds very
                              enthusiastically with a
                              couple of cheers as well)
                         This is a collection of the short
                         essays he has written over the past
                         year or so debunking the myths and
                         false thinking of the
                         protectionists and the socialists.
                         They are some of the cleverest and
                         most amusing pieces of economic
                         writing I have ever read. They
                         certainly appeal to an audience we
                         have not tried to appeal to before,
                         that is people who are new to
                         economic ways of thinking about
                         problems.  He tells me he has
                         enough for another volume which we
                         look forward to publishing in the
                         near future. Frederic would you
                         like to say a few words?

                         Thank you Guillaumin for those kind
                         words. Ladies and gentlemen we
                         stand at a cusp of history which
                         could turn us in one of two
                         different directions. We could go
                         down the path the English have
                         taken with Cobden's mass free trade
                         movement which looks very close to
                         achieving victory. This is the path
                         towards prosperity and freedom. Or
                         we could be half-hearted in our
                         support for free trade and stay
                         where we are now. This is the path
                         to more economic stagnation and
                         social discontent. We have had some
                         promising signs that more French
                         people are becoming interested in
                         our ideas. We have had some large
                         public meetings in Bordeaux and
                         Paris which give us some hope. The
                         very good sales of the volume of
                         Economic Sophisms is another good
                         sign. We will know fairly soon
                         which path France will ultimately
                         take. Thank you all for your
                         support and encouragement.

               There is very strong applause and the guests begin to mill
               about. People come up to Frederic to shake his hand. Hortense
               comes up to Frederic with a big smile on her face.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I'm so pleased for you Frederic!
                         Your book is selling so well.

               She kisses him on the cheek for the first time.

                         Thank you madame.
                            (he is taken a little

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Please call me Hortense.


                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I do hope you will come to our
                         salon again soon. I got many, shall
                         we say, interesting comments after
                         your last visit!

                         I'd be delighted to.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Excellent! In the meantime, would
                         you sign my copy.

               Frederic signs her copy and we see what he has written, "To
               dear Hortense, FROM A GRATEFUL ADMIRER, Frederic".

                                                                CUT TO:

        40     INT. A RESTAURANT IN PARIS - NIGHT                      40

               Richard Cobden's Anti-Corn Law League was successful in
               finally getting the protectionist Corn Laws repealed in June
               1846 after 8 years of intense and sometimes acrimonious
               political agitation. He has embarked on a celebratory tour of
               Europe over the summer of 1846 which brings him to Paris in
               August where he is feted by a banquet hosted by the Political
               Economy Society. Present are the Duke of Harcourt, the
               president of the French Free Trade Association, Guillaumin,
               Horace Say the vice-president of the Society, Casimir and
               Hortense Cheuvreux, Michel Chevalier, Frederic Bastiat,
               Molinari, and others. 

                         It is my very great honour to
                         welcome Mr. Richard Cobden, the
                         indefatigable opponent of trade
                         restrictions, to Paris. Sir, you
                         and your League have shown us the
                         way we Frenchmen and women must now
                         Your tenacity and skill have shaken
                         the remnants of feudalism in
                         England to its very core. No longer
                         will the landed elites be able to
                         steal the very bread from the
                         mouths of the working poor! No
                         longer will nations be at each
                         others throats to get access to
                         markets! You sir, have let the free
                         trade genii out of the bottle and
                         the old regime will never be able
                         to put it back in again! I ask all
                         of you to join with me in toasting
                         our esteemed visitor. To Richard
                         Cobden and to the sacred principle
                         of free trade!

               All the guests rise to the feet and toast Cobden lustily.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         M. Say, you are too kind! In
                         response, let me say it is not I
                         who have shown you Frenchmen the
                         way. Both our great countries have
                         produced economists and politicians
                         who have argued and agitated for
                         free trade. Last century your M.
                         Turgot and our Adam Smith were
                         pioneers in this endeavour. Earlier
                         this century, your own father, Jean
                         Baptiste Say is one of the giants
                         of the free trade movement. Thus
                         one can never say that free trade
                         is only an English phenomenon. It
                         is a world phenomenon!

               An obviously emotional Guillaumin rises to his feet to give
               another impromptu toast.

                         To free trade throughout the world!

               The guests all say "Hear! Hear!"

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         But friends, let me give you a word
                         of advice from an old war horse in
                         the battle. The battle you now face
                         as you ramp up your movement will
                         not be easy.
                         Adam Smith wrote his great treatise
                         the Wealth of Nations attacking the
                         mercantilist system of trade
                         restrictions and subsidies exactly
                         70 year ago this very year. It has
                         taken us that long to achieve our
                         success. If you recall, in that
                         book Smith himself was very
                         pessimistic about achieving
                         victory. The powers of the
                         oligarchy which controlled the
                         British state seemed too strong to
                         budge, but we were able to overcome
                         that powerful entrenched resistance
                         by mobilizing the English people.
                         You will have to do the same. The
                         oligarchy will lie about the
                         benefits they personally receive
                         and will tell the people that trade
                         restrictions are in their
                         interests. These dreadful and
                         pernicious sophisms will have to
                         combatted. In times of crisis - and
                         there will be times of acute crisis
                         - the people will lose heart and
                         resist any changes to the system
                         they know. You will have to
                         persuade them otherwise. But I
                         think that you are in good hands.
                         When I look around the room I see
                         many reasons to be confident about
                         the future of free trade it France.

               As he looks around the room he focuses on Guillaumin, the
               Cheuvreux's and Horace Say, Chevalier, Molinari, and Bastiat.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN (CONT'D)
                         I see the great organiser and
                         intellectual entrepreneur
                         Guillaumin; I see those who raise
                         the money to fund this great cause,
                            (he indicates Cheuvreux and
                         You have scholars in the university
                         like Chevalier, young scholars
                         writing the sordid history of
                            (he indicates Molinari)
                         And you have a more recent find in
                         M. Bastiat whose skill as a writer
                         should not be underestimated.
                         I remember getting from him out of
                         the blue a couple of years ago an
                         extraordinary manuscript which
                         analysed the strategy and theory
                         behind the Anti-Corn Law League
                         which I myself was not able to
                         articulate. If such genius can
                         arise out of the furthest removed
                         province of France, there is great
                         hope for our movement in the
                         future. So, it my turn to toast
                         you, ladies and gentlemen, "To the
                         great future of freedom in France!"

               The guests rise to their feet and respond to the toast.
               Frederic's colleagues are clapping him on the back and
               congratulating for what Cobden has just said. Hortense sits
               at a table in the corner and smiles.

        41     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            41

               May 1847. We see a BAKER doubling the price of bread in his
               shop window. A bad harvest has led to a shortage of flour and
               much higher bread prices. A crowd of people begin to gather
               in the street outside the bakery. One of these is the heckler
               we saw at the Montesquieu Hall meeting.

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 1
                         This is outrageous! How can I
                         afford to feed my family at these

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 2
                         I tell you! It is the hoarders of
                         grain who are profiting off our
                         backs. This happens every time
                         there is a poor harvest.

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 3
                         No. It's these free traders.

               She points to wall posters outside the bakery announcing the
               next pubic meeting of the Free Trade Association.

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 2
                         They want our farmers to sell wheat
                         abroad if they can get higher

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 1
                         The bastards!

               He begins to tear down the poster and is joined by others.

                         What are you doing? Leave that

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 2
                         We are not paying those high prices
                         for our bread. That is immoral!

                         It is not my fault. I have to buy
                         my flour at the market like
                         everybody else.

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 1
                         Sell us bread at the old prices!

                         No I can't and I won't!

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 3
                         Then we will!

               The crowd pushes forward into the shop taking the bread they
               want. A scuffle break out, some items in the shop window are
               knocked and THE WINDOW BREAKS.

                         Get out of my shop!

                                   PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 2
                         We are only taking what is ours by

               She throws down some coins on the shop counter, takes her
               bread, and storms out of the shop. The others do the same.

                                                                CUT TO:

        42     INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY            42

               A few days later. Gustave de Molinari is in the office
               talking to Frederic when Thomas enters.

                         Here are the morning papers

                         Thank you Thomas.
                            (turning to Gustave)
                         Here is a report on that food riot.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         It looks like they are getting more

                         I can't say I blame them. Prices
                         are nearly double what they were
                         last year and wages certainly
                         haven't gone up.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         But it is so stupid to blame the
                         bakers. It is not their fault that
                         the government won't let in wheat
                         from Odessa. That market is booming
                         and we could be buying cheaply from
                         them at the moment. They won't even
                         allow in surplus wheat from the
                         south because of the stupid zonal
                         system. Getting a permit takes
                         forever anyway.

                         Well, we have been telling them
                         that for months now.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Perhaps we should use stronger
                         language. Take a leaf out of the
                         socialists' book. They denounce
                         making a profit as an act of
                         exploitation on the part of the
                         business owner; they say charging
                         interest on a loan is nothing but
                         plunder. And damn it, Proudhon says
                         that property itself is theft! 

                         I've been moving towards that
                         myself but I'm not sure if it is
                         right rhetorically speaking.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         What do you mean?

                         I mean my strategy has been to use
                         gentle mockery and satire not
                         outright name calling.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Perhaps its time to change before
                         things get out of hand. Why not
                         call a spade a spade?

                         I wrote this a while ago but
                         haven't used it.

               He pulls an article out of his desk drawer.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Take a look.

               He hands Gustave an essay entitled "Theft by Subsidy".
               Gustave reads it and chuckles.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         I thought you would find that

                         What is he laughing at Monsieur?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Frederic knows how much I like
                         Molire's plays and he makes fun of
                         one here. Can you read Latin?

               He gives the essay to Thomas to read, showing him the

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D)
                         It is from "The Hypochondriac".
                         I'll give you a clue. He hates
                         doctors. He thinks they are quacks.

                            (reading the Latin with
                              some difficulty)
                         "Ego, cum isto boneto Venerabili et
                         doctor, Don tibi et concedo
                         Virtutem et puissanciam, Medicandi,
                         Purgandi, Seignandi, Perandi,
                         Taillandi, Coupandi, Et occidendi
                         Impune per total terram."

               Thomas pauses after the effort of reading it.

                                   THOMAS (CONT'D)
                         What the hell does that mean?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         The medical students have to
                         promise to do this if they want to
                         become real doctors: "I give and
                         grant you Power and authority to
                         Practice medicine, Purge, Bleed,
                         Stab, Hack, Slash, and Kill with
                         impunity throughout the whole

                         No, he doesn't like doctors much
                         does he?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         He hates doctors about as much as
                         Frederic hates customs officials.
                         Read what comes next. In Frederic's
                         story this is what trainee customs
                         officers have to promise to do if
                         they want to became professional
                         customs collectors.

               He points to the next passage which Thomas reads.

                         "Dono tibi et concedo, Virtutem et
                         puissantiam, Volandi, Pillandi,
                         Derobandi, Filoutandi, Et
                         escroquandi, Impune per totam istam

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         And what does that mean?

               Thomas puts his hand over his heart and puffs out his chest
               as if he were making a pledge of honour.

                         "I give to you and I grant virtue
                         and power to steal, to plunder, to
                         filch, to swindle, to defraud, at
                         will, along this whole road."

               He pauses for breath.

                                   THOMAS (CONT'D)
                         I like it better in Latin!

               Thomas grabs a FIRE POKER which was lying next to the fire
               and begins to act like the customs officers he had seen at
               the octroi gates searching for contraband in travellers
               luggage. He thrusts the poker in time to the words

                                   THOMAS (CONT'D)
                         "Volandi, Pillandi, Derobandi,
                         Filoutandi, escroquandi".

               Gustave and Frederic both burst out laughing.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Frederic, you should write some
                         more like this. I like the harsh
                         and direct language!

                         Yes, but will the politicians
                         accept it? That is the question.

                                                                CUT TO:


               Summer 1847. Frederic is part of a delegation of economists
               who will meet with the PRIME MINISTER THIERS and the MINISTER
               FOR TRADE GRIDAINE and their senior officials to discuss
               trade reform. With Frederic is Michel Chevalier and Horace
               Say both of whom are Deputies in the Chamber. They have a
               bundle of documents to show the Ministers. They enter the
               PALAIS BOURBON which houses the Chamber of Deputies and enter
               a luxurious committee room where the Ministers and their
               staff are waiting. In a corner of the room is a large marble
               bust of Cardinal Richelieu, the Chief Minister of Louis XIII
               and the architect of the centralised French state.

                                   PRIME MINISTER THIERS
                         Gentlemen, please come in. This is
                         the Minister for Trade M. Gridaine
                         and these are some of his senior

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Prime Minister! Let me introduce M.
                         Frederic Bastiat, the secretary of
                         the Free Trade Association, and
                         Deputy Horace Say.

                                   PRIME MINISTER THIERS
                         Gentlemen. A pleasure. Please be
                         seated. I have granted you this
                         opportunity to present your case
                         for trade reform because several
                         Deputies have suggested it to me,
                         including your two colleagues, but
                         they are not alone.
                         We have been following with great
                         interest what has been happening
                         across the channel regarding their
                         experiment in liberalisation and we
                         would like to know what options we
                         face in this country. Please begin.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Prime Minister, we have broken down
                         the argument into the following
                         parts. I will provide an estimate
                         of the reductions in government
                         income over five years if we cut
                         the tariff to 10% or even 5% on all
                         the major products which are
                         currently taxed, such as beef,
                         coal, textiles, sugar, and so on.
                         We also have figures on the impact
                         of an across the board abolition of
                         all tariffs. 

               The politicians are visible disturbed by this idea.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D)
                         Here is a table of figures of our

               He hands Thiers, Gridaine, and the officials the first

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D)
                         Deputy Say will discuss the impact
                         of a reduction in tariffs and taxes
                         on the standard of living of
                         ordinary working people. A summary
                         of his estimates are in this

               He hands out another document to the politicians.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D)
                         And to conclude, M. Bastiat will
                         discuss the impact of these cuts on
                         French industry as a whole, both
                         those protected by tariffs and
                         subsidies and those which are not.
                         His analysis might surprise you
                         because he looks behind what is
                         immediately apparent to the most
                         affected industries, that is a loss
                         of income in the short term, and
                         looks at the longer term and less
                         easily seen consequences of an
                         economy wide lowering of costs and
                         the expansion of international
                         markets which we believe will be
                         the consequences of a cut in
                         tariffs. In the even longer term,
                         there might even be an increase in
                         tax revenue caused by an overall
                         expansion of the national economy.
                         But this of course is not our
                         intention but merely an unintended
                         consequence of liberalistaion.

               He hands out Frederic's paper to the ministers. They discuss
               the free traders proposals for some time before PM Thiers
               calls the meeting to a close.

                                   PRIME MINISTER THIERS
                         Before we close the meeting, are
                         there any final comments you would
                         like to make? M. Bastiat?

                         Yes. One more thing Prime Minister.
                         Even if you find our economic
                         analysis inadequate, could I draw
                         to your intention the dire
                         political circumstances the nation
                         now finds itself in. In my view,
                         unless taxes and tariffs on basic
                         foodstuffs are cut there will be
                         more food riots like the ones we
                         have seen recently over the rising
                         price of bread. They could get out
                         of control one day and cause havoc.
                         Surely, the security of the regime
                         itself might then come under

                                   PRIME MINISTER THIERS
                         M. Bastiat, I'm sure our security
                         forces can keep a few bread rioters
                         under control. Thank you all very
                         much for coming and presenting your
                         case. It was most interesting.

               As the free traders leave the Committee Room they see waiting
               outside the two leaders of the Protectionist Association for
               the Promotion of National Labour AUGUSTE MIMEREL and ANTOINE
               ODIER. They are welcomed into the Committee Room even more
               warmly than the free traders were. As they wait for the
               meeting to end they stroll about looking at the art work
               which lines the corridor.

               The meeting with Mimerel and Odier ends and one of the SENIOR
               BUREAUCRATS comes up to the free traders with some bad news.

                                   SENIOR BUREAUCRAT
                         Gentlemen, I'm afraid I have some
                         bad news for you. The Prime
                         Minister and the Minister of Trade
                         are going to recommend to the
                         Chamber that there should be no
                         change in tariff policy in the
                         immediate future. They both would
                         like to express their thanks for
                         your valuable contributions.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Thanks you for letting us know so
                         quickly. Good day.

                                                                CUT TO:

        44     INT. THE LIBRARY IN THE PALAIS BOURBON                  44

               The three men walk off visibly shocked. It was not what they
               had expected. They leave the building through the MAGNIFICENT
               LIBRARY where the painter DELACROIX is finishing work on a
               series of ceiling murals. Frederic takes his time looking at
               the works.

                            (calling to his departing
                         Don't wait for me. I'll see you
                         back at Guillaumin's.

               Frederic is more upset than the other two as this is a severe
               blow to the entire free trade movement which he has built up
               from nothing. He looks at the paintings on the ceiling as
               Delacroix cleans up his brushes at the end of a day's work.
               After walking up and down the entire length of the room
               looking at the images, Frederic comes up to Delacroix.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         M. Delacroix. I see at one end
                         Orpheus bringing the law, the
                         knowledge of agriculture, peace,
                         and prosperity to mankind.
                            (he points to the southern
                              end of the building)
                         But who is that at the other end?
                            (he points to the northern

                         That is Attila with his hordes of
                         barbarians taking it all away
                         again. If men don't learn from
                         their mistakes they will have to
                         pay the penalty one day.

                         Indeed they will. But the thing to
                         figure out is whether the next
                         Attila will come from within this
                         building or from without.

                         That's a good question. I don't
                         know. Either is possible I suppose.

                         May I ask you another question M.

                         Yes of course.

                         I have a print of your painting
                         "Liberty leading the People" on my
                         office wall. Where is it now?

                         They took it down because it
                         embarrassed the King. It is in a
                         storeroom somewhere in the Palais
                         Luxembourg where no one can see it.

                         That is a great pity. Thank you

               Frederic turns and leaves the building in a very sad state of

                                                                CUT TO:

        45     INT. A GOGUETTE IN PARIS - DAY                          45

               The socialist LOUIS BLANC and some colleagues are in a bar
               filled with working men after the day's work. They are
               handing out leaflets with the title "The Organisation of

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         Friends! There is a better way to
                         organise society. If we leave it to
                         the bosses we will always have high
                         prices for our food and low wages
                         for ourselves and our families.

               A worker takes the leaflet, looks at it, and asks

                                   WORKER 1
                         So who does the organising then?

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         Well, we do friend. Workers like
                         you and me. We will organise
                         ourselves into social workshops and
                         run them ourselves. If we do the
                         work then we should be paid
                         accordingly. That means each person
                         is paid according to their needs
                         not their monetary worth. If the
                         bosses do no work then they should
                         not be paid.

                                   WORKER 1
                         Sounds fair to me!

                                   WORKER 2
                         And what would you do about the
                         high price of food?

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         Exactly like Robespierre did back
                         in the Revolution. Bring in price
                         controls to stop people like bakers
                         gouging the people.

                                   WORKER 2
                         But don't bakers have to make a
                         profit too?

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         Yes friend, but not at the expense
                         of the ordinary people. Only a fair
                         and equitable profit.

               The conversation is interrupted by the police who enter the
               goguette demanding to see their working papers.

                                   POLICEMAN 1
                         Get your workbooks out for
                         inspection! You there!
                            (he points to Louis Blanc
                              and his colleagues)
                         Stop handing out those leaflets.
                         Arrest him! Get them and their

               The policemen go from table to table INSPECTING THE WORKBOOKS
               of all the workers in the goguette and collecting all the
               socialist pamphlets which had been handed out. Those without
               workbooks or up-to-date stamps from their employers are
               rounded up and taken outside.

                                   POLICEMAN 1 (CONT'D)
                            (talking to Louis Blanc)
                         Haven't I told you before
                         distributing political pamphlets is
                         illegal? Take him outside!

               Two policemen roughly take him outside while the others
               gather up all the leaflets and remove them from the goguette.

                                   POLICEMAN 1 (CONT'D)
                         This goguette is closed until
                         further notice!

               There are groans and shouts of disapproval from the workers
               in the goguette.

                                   WORKER 2
                         Why don't you just leave us alone!

                                                                CUT TO:

        46     EXT. A PARK IN PARIS - EVENING                          46

               Throughout late 1847 an organised movement emerged throughout
               France to challenge the government's ban on political
               meetings and freedom of speech. LARGE OUTDOOR BANQUETS often
               attended by 800 or 1,000 people were organised. Instead of
               political speeches the banquets had dozens of political
               "toasts" made by political figures and intellectuals one
               after the other. The police had a hard time distinguishing
               between a short political "speech" and a long political
               "toast". The government eventually banned a political banquet
               planned for Paris on 22 February, 1848 to celebrate GEORGE
               A protest march opposing the ban was the trigger for the
               collapse of Louis Philippe's government and the beginning of
               the Revolution. Here we see one of the last large banquets
               before the ban was declared.

               Tables are arranged outdoors under the trees in a large
               public park in Paris. Lanterns hang from the trees. Waiters
               are serving dinner to the guests who have bought tickets to
               attend. To one side of the tables is a raised platform where
               speaker after speaker comes up to make a "toast". In the
               background we can see small groups of policemen moving about
               to observe the proceedings.

               A MASTER OF CEREMONIES announces each speaker in turn.

                         Monsieur Louis Blanc has the

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         On behalf of the workers of Paris I
                         would like to toast the rational
                         organisation of labour so that
                         working people are given the wages
                         they truly deserve and the
                         destructive chaos of unbridled
                         competition and wage labour is
                         brought to an end. To the workers
                         of Paris!

               He is largely ignored by the guests who continue eating and
               drinking. Only a couple of people stand with their glasses
               raised and toast "To the Workers of Paris".

                         Monsieur Léon Faucher, Deputy of
                         France and economist now has the

                                   LéON FAUCHER
                         In contrast to the previous
                         speaker, I would like to make a
                         toast to the true freedom of
                         working, where the government
                         leaves businesses free to arrange
                         their own affairs as they see fit,
                         and where workers are free to move
                         about to choose their place of
                         employment. To the freedom of

               Faucher gets a slightly better response from the guests, a
               dozen of whom stand to raise their glasses and make the

                         The poet Monsieur Alphonse
                         Lamartine now has the lectern!

               He is welcomed with very enthusiastic applause from the

                         There can be no true liberty in
                         France unless all people have the
                         right to say and write whatever
                         they please and to criticise the
                         government when it makes mistakes.
                         I propose a toast to complete
                         freedom of speech!

               There is a load cheer from the guests when they hear
               Lamartine's toast. They all stand and raise their glasses and
               repeat the toast loudly, thus attracting the attention of the
               police who come over to see what has been happening. One of
               the policemen warns the crowd:

                                   POLICEMAN 1
                         May I remind you political speeches
                         are banned under the law!

               He is jeered by several in the crown.

                                   GUEST 3
                         That wasn't a speech that was a

               The police move off looking a bit confused.

                         The playwright and republican M.
                         Etienne Arago!

                                   ETIENNE ARAGO
                         As long as the aristocrats control
                         the political system there can be
                         no freedom in France. The people
                         must be given a say in how they are
                         governed. It is our birthright! I
                         toast the next republic of France!

               There is murmuring among the guests, some of whom are not
               prepared to support the idea of a Republic yet. Others stand
               to toast Arago. On hearing these words, the police move in to
               REMOVE ARAGO FROM THE BANQUET. They seize him and some of
               guests protest their actions. A scuffle breaks out between
               the police and the republican guests. This part of the
               banquet dissolves into chaos. At other tables a bit further
               away the toasting continues.

               The camera rises above the tables for an aerial shot of the
               entire park showing parts that are relatively undisturbed and
               several where there are scuffles and arrests of speakers
               taking place.

                                                                CUT TO:

        47     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            47

               January 1848. It is a cold winter's day and government
               workers are pasting up a large wall poster which announces
               that henceforth ALL POLITICAL BANQUETS HAVE BEEN BANNED by
               order of the Prime Minister, Adolphe Thiers, in the name of
               His Majesty, King Louis Philippe, King of the French People.

               Some passers-by gather to read the announcement and there is
               unhappy muttering.

                                                              FADE OUT.



ACT III. Revolution and Crisis (Feb-June 1848)

Interior of Assemblée Nationale in 1848. It seated 900 Deputies.

[Interior of Assemblée Nationale in 1848. It seated 900 Deputies.]

                                                               FADE IN.


               Opening shot of the imposing exterior of the PALAIS DE
               LUXEMBOURG where the Chamber of Peers met during the July
               Monarchy and where the socialist National Workshops will soon
               have its HQ.

                                   FREDERIC (V.O.)
                         Legal plunder can be carried out in
                         an infinite number of ways. This
                         gives rise to an infinite number of
                         plans for organizing it, through
                         tariffs, protectionism, privileges,
                         subsidies, incentives, progressive
                         taxation, free education, the right
                         to a job, the right to a guaranteed
                         profit, the right to a wage, the
                         right to public assistance, the
                         right to be given tools for work,
                         free credit, and so on. And it is
                         the combination of all of these
                         plans, insofar as they have legal
                         plunder in common, which is given
                         the name of socialism.

                                                           DISSOLVE TO:

        49     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            49

               We can only hint visually at the complex events which led to
               the overthrow of King Louis Philippe's government 22-26
               February 1848 and the declaration of the Second Republic.

               Feb. 22, 1848. A large crowd of protesters with banners are
               PROTESTING the ban on political banquets, especially the one
               planned for Feb. 22 for Washington's Birthday. As the crowd
               marches down the streets agitated soldiers wonder how to
               control the crowd. A scuffle breaks out between some of the
               protesters and soldiers. SHOTS RING OUT, and some protesters
               fall to the ground. The crowd scatters.

                                                                CUT TO:

        50     EXT. OUTSIDE THE KING'S PALACE - DAY                    50

               A few hours later an even larger crowd gathers outside the
               King's palace demanding action be taken against the troops
               for killing the protesters. They are shouting angry things
               about the King and call for a new government.

               A carriage pulls up at the side of the Palace and an
               obviously frightened King with his family get into it and
               ride off.

                                                                CUT TO:

        51     EXT. A BALCONY OF THE HOTEL DE VILLE - DAY              51

               Lamartine is standing on the balcony addressing a very large
               and happy crowd of people who have gathered in the square in
               front of the HOTEL DE VILLE. Standing next to him are 11
               other Deputies, including Louis Blanc and Etienne Arago, whom
               he has asked to form a Provisional Government now that the
               King has abdicated and fled. The balcony is draped with the
               tricolour flag of the French Republic.

                                                                CUT TO:

        52     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            52

               On a windswept street which is covered in debris following
               the protest marches we see a pile of rubbish which is
               burning. No one is there, just the burning pile of rubbish.
               At the top of the pile someone has tossed King Louis
               Philippe's throne. It is identical to the one in the Daumier
               cartoon which so intrigued Thomas in Frederic's office. It is
               very elaborate, with fine upholstery and gold trim. It slowly
               burns and then breaks up and collapses into the pile of red
               hot coals.

        53     INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY            53

               Thomas comes running into the office waving a flyer he has
               picked up in the street. Gustave and Frederic are there
               reading the papers which are spread out all over the desks.

                         Messieurs! The King has abdicated!
                         The government has collapsed! We
                         are a Republic again!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Vive la république!

                         That's fantastic!

               They all run out into the street where they see people
               milling about, shouting for joy. Some people are putting up
               large wall posters announcing the news. "Louis Philippe
               abdicates!", "Lamartine announces the formation of a
               Provisional Government".

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         This is our chance!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         What do you mean?

                         Now that the government has fallen
                         and before the new government is
                         formed we have real freedom of
                         speech! We have to start our own
                         magazine and get our ideas out to
                         the people! Are you with me

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Yes, of course.

                         Well, let's get started!

               They run back into the office and begin writing the first

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         What will we call it?

                         "The Republic" of course!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Of course, how silly of me!

               Frederic and Gustave quickly draw up the magazine's statement
               of principles. Frederic shouts out the key points and Gustave
               writes them down as fast as he can. Adding a few of his own
               as he goes.

                         "we demand universal suffrage"

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         "universal suffrage"

                         "We wish that henceforth labour
                         should be completely free, no more
                         laws against unions"

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         "no more laws against unions"

                         "complete liberty of working as
                         demanded by Turgot nearly 100 years

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         "complete liberty of working"

                         "an end to conscription"

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         "an end to conscription"

                         "complete freedom to trade"

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         "free trade"

               When they have completed drawing up their statement of
               principles to their satisfaction Frederic surveys it.

                         Excellent! Now we need to go get
                         permission to publish it and find a

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         What do you mean, get permission? I
                         thought censorship has collapsed.

                         Maybe, but we don't want to break
                         the law unnecessarily. It won't
                         take long to go to City Hall (Hotel
                         de Ville) and do the paperwork.
                         Come on!

                                                                CUT TO:

        54     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            54

               Gustave, Frederic, and Thomas walk along the street towards
               the Hotel de Ville.
               The streets are filled with people milling about savouring
               the moment. There is shouting. People gather around the wall
               posters with the latest news, reading out the headlines and
               fervently discussing events as they unfold. When they turn
               the corner into the square where the Hotel de Ville is
               located they see SCENES OF LOOTING. Armed rioters have seized
               control of the building, offices are being ransacked, papers
               and furniture are being thrown into the street. There is
               complete chaos.

                         My mistake! There is no point in
                         being here now. Paris has complete
                         freedom of speech for the time
                         being. What a great day! Let's find
                         a printer. There are several down
                         this street.

               The three turn down a street where several print shops are
               located. People with the same idea they have had are rushing
               in and out of print shops with the copy they have written for
               their little magazines and newspapers. As they walk down the
               street a person thrusts a freshly printed paper into their
               hands, shouting "Vive la Rébulique!"

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Damn! Frederic, do see what they
                         have called their magazine? They've
                         beaten us to it!

               He shows him the title of the paper which reads "The

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D)
                         What will call ours then?

                         "The French Republic" of course!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Of course, how silly of me!

               They come to a print shop and enter it.

                                                                CUT TO:

        55     INT. A PRINTER'S SHOP - DAY                             55

               A PRINTER is standing to one side surrounded by a group of
               workers who have come to get their little magazine printed.
               Frederic calls out to get his attention.

                         Monsieur, we would like to have our
                         small magazine printed!

                                   THE PRINTER
                         Can't you see I'm very busy right

               We can see posters and magazines which are being printed and
               collated. They are entitled "The National Workshops will
               Guarantee every Frenchman the Right to a Job". Some have the
               title "The Organisation of Work" with Louis Blanc's name

                         But monsieur, it is very urgent!

               The printer eventually comes over to Frederic.

                                   THE PRINTER
                         Let me have a look.

               He tears the papers out of Frederic's hands and begins

                                   THE PRINTER (CONT'D)
                         Sorry. I'm not printing this
                         rubbish about free trade.

                         What do you mean?

                                   THE PRINTER
                         I'm a socialist and I'm helping
                         these workers print their magazine
                         called "The Organisation of
                         Labour". I don't want anything to
                         do with you lot! It's my right, so
                         go somewhere else!

               Frederic, Gustave, and Thomas leave the print shop very
               surprised and walk down the street to find another printer's

                                                                CUT TO:

        56     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            56

               Frederic, Gustave, and Thomas have taken up a position on a
               street corner where they begin handing our their little
               newspaper. They are not alone as other groups are doing the
               same thing.
               There is a paper called "Friends of the Republic," another
               called "The Democrat", and another called "The People's

               Thomas and his friends are pasting a large poster with their
               declaration of principles on the wall behind where Frederic
               and Gustave are standing. The poster reads:

               THE FRENCH REPUBLIC.
               It is not enough just to change the men who rule us, it is
               also necessary to change our ideas.
               We demand: 
               an end to all political and economic privilege.
               henceforth labour should be completely free, 
               no more laws against unions, 
               complete liberty of working
               Universal suffrage.
               No more state funded religions
               Freedom of commerce
               The elimination of taxes on food
               Let us live our lives at the lowest possible prices!
               No more conscription
               labour exchanges for the workers to find jobs
               respect for private property
               let us fraternize with all the people of the world, 
               let liberty, equality, and fraternity be the law of the

               PASSERSBY come up to Frederic and Gustave to talk to them
               about their ideas. They get into arguments.

                                   PASSERBY 1
                         But the government ought to be on
                         the side of the workers not the
                         bosses! It should give jobs to
                         anyone who wants to work.

                         No. The government should not take
                         one side or the other. It should
                         leave people alone to go about
                         their business.

                                   PASSERBY 1
                         The workers are too weak. They need
                         help from the government. 

                                   PASSERBY 2
                         They've been on the side of the
                         bosses for too long. It is our turn

                                                                CUT TO:

        57     EXT. A BARRICADED STREET IN PARIS - DAY                 57

               A shout further up the street can be heard above all the

                                   UNSEEN PERSON
                         The soldiers are coming! To the

               Suddenly people disappear from the street which a moment ago
               had been full of activity. Windows on the upper levels of
               building are opened and pieces of furniture and other
               household ITEMS ARE THROWN INTO THE STREET. People emerge
               from side streets with stones and iron railings from fences
               which they add to the growing pile in the middle of the
               street. An empty coach appears out of nowhere, is overturned
               and added to the pile of debris. A group of men come out of a
               building with a long iron chain which they wrap around the
               barricade, pull it tight and then tie the entire mass into a
               more solid structure. 

               This is happening up and down the street and Frederic,
               Gustave, and Thomas find themselves trapped between two
               barricades. They can hear GUNSHOTS coming from a street a few
               blocks away

               A MAN who seems to be in charge of building the barricade
               comes up to them and says:

                                   MAN AT BARRICADE 1
                         The troops have been sent out to
                         crush the revolution. You have a
                         choice either to help us or get out
                         of the way. Do you support the
                         Republic or not? 

                         I support the Republic!

                                   MAN AT BARRICADE 1
                         Then, pick up some paving stones to
                         add to the barricade!

               The three of them start pulling up street paving stones as
               they see others around them doing.

               The sound of GUNSHOTS becomes louder and they can see over
               the barricade that soldiers are moving down the street. They
               have SNIPERS who are shooting protesters in the windows of
               the apartments above them. The protesters also have snipers
               who fire back killing several soldiers. There is a massive
               volley of gunfire. Several people on the barricade are
               killed, others are wounded and lie bleeding in the street.
               The shooting stops for a moment and Frederic sees an OFFICER
               further up the street and calls out to him.

                         Can we call for a cease fire!

                                   OFFICER 1
                         Who is that?

                         A citizen! Can we have a cease fire
                         so we can attend to the wounded?

                                   OFFICER 1
                         Yes. Ten minutes.

               Frederic, Gustave, and Thomas help others drag THE DEAD AND
               INJURED into a side street. There are over a dozen dead, and
               a similar number of wounded who are propped up against a
               wall. The cease fire goes on for longer than 10 minutes.
               Frederic asks the barricade leader:

                         What is happening?

                                   MAN AT BARRICADE 1
                         The soldiers seem to have
                         retreated. I think we have won. The
                         Republic has won!

               Frederic surveys the devastation in the street, the glass
               from the BROKEN WINDOWS, and the leaflets which litter the

                                                                CUT TO:

        58     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            58

               A MASSIVE PUBLIC FUNERAL is taking place for the people who
               were killed by troops in the first couple of days of the
               Revolution. There are tricolour flags everywhere, banners
               declaring support for the Republic, and bands are playing la
               Marseillaise and other revolutionary songs.

                                                                CUT TO:

        59     INT. LUXEMBOURG PALACE - DAY                            59

               27 February 1848. A large group of men some of them armed,
               chanting slogans and carrying banners which state "Long Live
               the National Workshops" and "The Right to a Job for every
               Frenchman", enter and SEIZE CONTROL of the enormous
               Luxembourg Palace, the seat of the old Chamber of Peers. They
               clear the building of the few people who were there and begin
               setting up shop to run the National Workshops program. 

               Louis Blanc and ALBERT take charge directing a group of
               workers who are busy writing decrees which will be plastered
               on walls all over the city. 

               We see Blanc leave the group and walk alone through the empty
               corridors and rooms of the magnificent palace which once
               housed the aristocratic Chamber of Peers, but which is now
               home to radical socialist agitators. As Blanc walks through
               the rooms he sees and hears some of the ghosts of the
               recently departed Peers who seem to still haunt the building.

               He enters one room and sees A LARGE OBJECT DRAPED IN CLOTHS.
               He is curious about it and lifts up a corner of the cloth to
               see Delacroix's painting "Liberty Leading the People" which
               has been hidden away as if it now shamed the King to have it
               on display.

                                                                CUT TO:


               Several groups of men set out in different directions to put
               up the posters which say, "The Commission for Labour decrees
               a Work Day limit of 12 hours"; "All unemployed men are to
               report to the mayors of their districts for allocation to
               work brigades. Guaranteed Pay of 2 francs per day", etc.

               The next day a DEMONSTRATION OF A FEW THOUSAND PEOPLE gather
               in the courtyard of the Luxembourg Place. They are provided
               with large banners which say "We have a Right to a Job". They
               begin marching through the streets chanting and waving their

                                                                CUT TO:

        61     INT. LUXEMBOURG PALACE - DAY                            61

               Louis Blanc is in the old speaker's chair in the main chamber
               of the Palace where the Peers used to debate. The director
               Albert is with him. Behind him there is a semi-circle of
               statues of famous French politicians and statesmen.
               The camera surveys the STATUES focusing on the one at the far
               left, the supporter of free markets TURGOT, and the one in
               the middle, COLBERT who advocated centralised power and
               government regulation of the economy. Louis Blanc is
               addressing the inner circle of his supporters.

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         We have to keep the pressure on the
                         Provisional Government. Lamartine
                         is weak and is afraid of a public
                         backlash. We are one of the few
                         groups which can get thousands of
                         angry people out into the streets
                         at a moment's notice. The
                         Provisional Government created the
                         Committee for Labour but they have
                         no idea what our real aims are.

                         It shouldn't come as a surprise to
                         them as we have been quite open
                         about our goals. Another edition of
                         Blanc's book Organisation of Labour
                         is being printed and we will begin
                         circulating copies as soon as they
                         are delivered.

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         Albert and I have drawn up a
                         statement of principles which we
                         will distribute now for private
                         internal discussion among us.

               He indicates to an assistant to hand out the paper

                                   LOUIS BLANC (CONT'D)
                         It is too soon to present this to
                         the Provisional Government for
                         discussion. After the elections in
                         April when we have consolidated our
                         political position we will put this
                         forward for formal discussion.

               There is a buzz of excitement around the room as people begin
               to read the leaflet. Blanc begins to read out the list of

                                   LOUIS BLANC (CONT'D)
                         We will create a new Ministry for
                         Labour whose mission will be to
                         prepare us for the next stage of
                         the social revolution which will
                         lead us gradually to the abolition
                         of the proletariat as a class.
                         We will also create a Ministry for
                         Economic Progress whose task will
                         be to nationalise in the hands of
                         the State all landed property, the
                         railways, the mines, and the
                         insurance industry. It will also
                         create huge warehouses in which
                         every manufacturer and producer
                         will deposit the things they make
                         to be sold at prices determined by
                         the state and managed by state
                         functionaries. The producers will
                         be paid with paper money issued by
                         the central state bank. All profits
                         made by state enterprises like the
                         railways will be paid to the
                         Ministry of Labour to be
                         distributed to the workers. To be
                         eligible for these payments workers
                         associations must be placed under
                         the control of the state and
                         organised in a collective and
                         fraternal manner. All wages and
                         prices will be set at a uniform
                         level by a commission established
                         by the state for this purpose. This
                         will ensure that there is no
                         harmful competition between
                         workshops in the same industry. The
                         capital acquired by society will be
                         allocated by an administrative
                         council which will thus control the
                         reins of industry. The State will
                         bring about the realisation of this
                         legal plan to build socialism
                         through successive stages without
                         assaulting any person. It will
                         provide the model for private
                         associations which will continue to
                         exist in parallel with it. However,
                         we are convinced that, such will be
                         its attractiveness, that the State
                         will attract into the orbit of its
                         power, all rival systems of
                         economic organisation. Then we will
                         have realised our ultimate goal of
                         ridding the world of private
                         property, wage labour, profit,
                         interest, and rent.

                                                                CUT TO:

        62     INT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - DAY                          62

               Early March 1848. There is an emergency meeting of the
               Economists at the Guillaumin HQ to rethink their political

                         This is madness! After four years
                         hard work you want to shut it down!
                         We haven't finished our work yet!

                         But Frederic! Everything has
                         changed with the Revolution! We
                         have to drop the free trade
                         movement and focus on the new
                         threat of socialism.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         We completely underestimated the
                         power of the socialists to get
                         people into the streets. Don't you
                         see we have to focus on them now,

                         But the protectionist oligarchy
                         hasn't gone away. They are still
                         out there.

                         Yes, but they are in disarray. They
                         were caught unawares just as we
                         were. We have to counter the most
                         pressing threat which is Louis
                         Blanc and his supporters in the
                         Luxembourg Palace. He is putting
                         considerable pressure on the
                         Provisional Government. To make
                         things even worse, Chevalier has
                         been sacked as a professor at the
                         College de France.

                         How could they do that?

                         They decided to "reorganise" the
                         teaching of economics so socialist
                         economics could be taught alongside
                         free market economics. They said
                         they wanted "to teach the debate".

                         That's a disaster.

                         Yes. Say is heading up a delegation
                         to see Lamartine and urge that he
                         be re-appointed, but it will take a
                         while. In the meantime we have lost
                         one of our most important positions
                         of influence. So, we have to
                         completely rethink our strategy to
                         oppose the socialists.

                         Not all the people have gone over
                         to the socialists. We met lots of
                         good people on the streets who just
                         wanted freedom of speech and lower
                         food prices. They weren't
                         socialists by any means!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         But they are listening to what the
                         socialists are saying about the
                         right to a job and the need for
                         government funded relief in times
                         of hardship. We have to counter

                         I'm not saying we forget the free
                         trade movement. We just rearrange
                         our priorities for the time being.
                         We will come back to free trade


                         When things have settled down.
                         Maybe after the elections in April.

                         I still can't believe you want to
                         do this, after all that I have

                         There are other things you can do
                         Frederic. You've attacked the
                         socialists before in your sophisms.
                         You should do more of that.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         We also need to take advantage of
                         the collapse of the censorship
                         laws. We can debate the socialists
                         on the streets on their own terms.
                         Political Clubs are springing up
                         all over the city. We can start our
                         own. Coquelin even has a name for

                         What is it?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         The Club for the Liberty of
                         Working, or "Club Lib" for short.

                                                                CUT TO:

        63     EXT/INT. A STREET IN PARIS - NIGHT                      63

               The camera pans down a street in Paris where several of the
               new POLITICAL CLUBS are located. In the building which
               contains the Salle de Montesquieu, where the Free Trade
               Association once held its meetings,  there is now a SOCIALIST
               CLUB called the "Icarian Socialists Club". A large banner
               announces "Join the Icarian Socialists Model Community in
               Texas". ETIENNE CABET is speaking before a small audience:

                                   ETIENNE CABET
                         Brothers! The best hope for
                         socialism is not here in Paris but
                         in the vast expanses of Texas. We
                         have land there and an advance
                         party of socialists has already
                         begun the task of building a model
                         socialist community in the new
                         world. Join them! Leave this
                         Babylon of Paris behind and start
                         anew! Texas will soon become a
                         socialist paradise!

                                                                CUT TO:

        64     INT. CLUB LIB MEETING ROOM - EVENING                    64

               The camera moves further down the street and we see another
               Club called "The Club for the Emancipation of Women". A
               banner says "Women must have the Right to Vote". A woman is
               speaking before a much larger crowd of men and women, but the
               camera does not linger so we can hear what she is saying.

               The next Club on the street is "The German Workers Club"
               which is filled with German workers who live and work in
               Paris. A banner announces "The Manifesto of the Communist
               Party: Workers of the World Unite!" A heavily bearded man,
               KARL MARX, can be heard addressing the group:

                                   KARL MARX
                         We ally ourselves with the more
                         advanced French socialists such as
                         Louis Blanc and the Social
                         Democrats in the Chamber. Many of
                         our demands are similar to theirs.
                         We call for the abolition of
                         property in land and land rent, a
                         high and progressive income tax,
                         the centralisation of credit in the
                         hands of the state, the ownership
                         and centralisation of the means of
                         communication and transport in the
                         hands of the State, the expansion
                         of state owned and run factories,
                         the creation of industrial armies,
                         especially for agriculture, and
                         free education for all children in
                         public schools
                         We openly declare that our ends can
                         be attained only by the forcible
                         overthrow of all existing social
                         conditions. Let the ruling classes
                         tremble at a Communistic
                         revolution. The proletarians have
                         nothing to lose but their chains!

               The next Club revealed by the camera is Louis Blanc's
               "Socialist Workers Club" where we see Blanc addressing a
               group but we do not listen in. We can see his banners and
               slogans draped across the front of the hall. The camera then
               passes to show the meeting place of the Economists' "CLUB FOR
               THE FREEDOM OF WORKING". The banner on the front wall of the
               hall states "The Freedom to Work is the Right of every
               Worker". Joseph Garnier, Frederic, and Gustave are the

                         The socialists have correctly
                         identified some serious problems in
                         French society, such as the high
                         price of food and the difficulty of
                         getting good jobs. 

               There is jeering by some socialists in the audience.

                                   GARNIER (CONT'D)
                         But they are completely wrong about
                         what causes these problems!

               More jeering.

                                   GARNIER (CONT'D)
                         The high price of food is caused by
                         tariffs on imported wheat which
                         keeps the price of bread high, or
                         by government taxes on salt and
                         wine, which we know are essential
                         for the well-being of the French

               There are spirited cheers from the audience.

                                   GARNIER (CONT'D)
                         So, to lower the price of food we
                         desperately need free trade so we
                         can buy the cheapest food wherever
                         it might be in the world. From
                         America, from the Crimea, even from

               There is boo-ing at the last mentioned country.

                                   GARNIER (CONT'D)
                         My friend and colleague Frederic
                         Bastiat will tell you why good jobs
                         are so hard to get.

               There are some cheers for Frederic as he is known by some in
               the audience.

                         Ladies and Gentlemen!
                            (there are a few women
                              present in the audience)
                         The most precious thing you or
                         anyone else has is their own body
                         and the labour which they create
                         with their body. But why does the
                         government stop you from using your
                         own body and your own labour as you
                         see fit?

                                   PERSON IN AUDIENCE 1
                         Tell us then! Why does it?
                            (there is some laughter and

                         I'll tell you friend! Because for
                         decades the government has not let
                         workers work without having a
                         workbook which their employer has
                         to sign and the police have to
                         check every time they see you on
                         the street. You are slaves to the

               There are loud cheers of agreement from the audience.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         The government will not let you
                         work at any trade you like. You
                         cannot be a butcher or a baker
                         unless the government gives you a

               There are boos from the audience.

                                   PERSON IN AUDIENCE 2
                         What about a candlestick maker?

               There is much hilarity at the comment.

                         Friend, I'm glad you ask! I have
                         written a paper on that very
                         question. The candlemakers don't
                         have to work too hard. They just
                         get an exclusive licence from the
                         government! Something you can't do!

               The debate and repartee continues in this vein for a while
               until the meeting comes to a close and people begin to file
               out. It is very noisy in the hall as the debate has stirred
               up a lot of interest. As the last of audience leaves the hall
               Joseph, Frederic, and Gustave pack up their pamphlets and
               banner. They are met by A GROUP OF THUGS. One of them pushes
               Gustave who drops his bundle of papers.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         What the hell are you doing!

                                   COMMUNIST THUG 1
                         You have no right to be here. You
                         are not a real worker.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I have every right! Who are you?

               TWO OF THE THUGS step between Gustave and Frederic and
               Joseph. The first thug grabs Gustave by the hands, twists
               them hard, and looks at his nails. Gustave cries out in pain.

                                   COMMUNIST THUG 1
                         Just as I thought. You don't have
                         the hands of a worker! Get out of

               The three communist thugs push the economists to the ground,
               kick their pamphlets into the street, rough up Thomas, and
               then leave. The economists did not fight back. They are dirty
               and dishevelled and Gustave and Thomas have bloody noses.

               Louis Blanc sees this violence from the adjoining hall and
               comes over to speak to the economists.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         See what your communists thugs have
                         done! So much for socialists
                         supporting the freedom of speech!

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         I don't believe in violence and
                         have never advocated it. I don't
                         know who these people are. I've
                         never seen them before. Can I help

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Leave me alone!

                         Thank you Louis. He is just a bit

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         It shocked me too.

                         The danger is that you and your
                         socialist friends have raised the
                         expectations of so many of the
                         unemployed that they now expect the
                         new government to solve all their
                         problems for them.

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         And why shouldn't it?

                         Because it can't without taking
                         other people's property.

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         Then so be it!

               Louis Blanc walks off as the economists pick themselves up
               and get their things in order. 

                                                                CUT TO:

        65     EXT. PUBLIC SQUARE IN MUGRON - DAY                      65

               Early April 1848. As part of the new strategy adopted by the
               Economists Frederic is STANDING FOR ELECTION to the
               Constituent Assembly of the new Second Republic to be held on
               22 April. He has returned to Mugron to campaign under the new
               electoral law which has granted universal manhood suffrage.
               We hear him giving a speech in the square of Mugron on
               political and economic freedom and the dangers posed by high
               taxes and socialist schemes.

                         Citizens of Mugron! Last time we
                         had an election here only the
                         wealthiest tax payers were allowed
                         to vote. This "electoral class",
                         this dreadful oligarchy, were able
                         to control the Assembly for their
                         own purposes. Now thank goodness,
                         the rule of this class has been
                         broken and all the people can vote.
                         It is now up to you to see that
                         people like me can represent your
                         interests for the first time in
                         many decades.

               There are cheers from the crowd of electors in the square.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         My activities in Paris over the
                         past few years show exactly what I
                         stand for and how I will represent
                         your interests. I have argued for
                         free trade, which will assist our
                         region in finding new markets for
                         our wine; I have opposed high taxes
                         on food and other essential
                         products which oppress the poorest
                         members of our community, I have
                         lobbied hard in the local Council
                         for a complete reassessment of the
                         tax burden which is based on
                         decades old and out of date tax
                         and most particularly in the recent
                         revolution I have taken the
                         strongest possible stand against
                         socialism and for the protection of
                         the property rights of all
                         individuals. I will continue to do
                         this if you elect me as one of
                         representatives in the coming

                                                                CUT TO:

        66     INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - EVENING                66

               Sometime later, Frederic is with his neighbours having a
               drink and reminiscing abut old times before he went to Paris
               while they wait to hear the election results.

                         How are your nerves holding up

                         Quite well. This wine helps!

                         I think you should be confident.
                         People are impressed with what you
                         have done in Paris over the past
                         few years. They understand you
                         appreciate the needs of our region.

                         I just hope they appreciate the
                         danger if the socialists do well in
                         the election.

               A messenger comes up to the front door of his house with news
               about the vote count.

                         May I come in? We have news about
                         the vote count.

                         Please, come in!

                         M. Bastiat you came 2nd with 56,445
                         votes. You will be one of 7
                         representatives for our district.

                         That's wonderful! How did the
                         socialist candidates do?

                         They did very badly. Not one was
                         elected in our district. I don't
                         know about Bordeaux. It is too soon
                         to tell.

                         Well done Frederic!

                                                                CUT TO:

        67     INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY                    67

               Early May 1848. The 900 Deputies in the newly elected
               Constituent Assembly gather in the Chamber of the Palais
               Bourbon. There is a lot of noise as they take their seats. We
               see the song writer BéRANGER taking his seat as well as some
               of the other Economists who were successful in the election,
               such as Alexis de Tocqueville, Wolowski, Faucher. Frederic
               takes his seat between the two main blocks of delegates. To
               the right is the majority faction of conservatives and
               monarchists all of whom are very well and fashionably
               dressed. To the left is the smaller group of socialists and
               radical republicans like Louis Blanc, Victor Considerant, and
               Proudhon who are wearing different types of city worker or
               country farmer styles of clothes. They have not done as well
               as they had hoped in the election. Frederic sits with a group
               of moderate republicans and liberals in the middle, like
               Lamartine, who are suitably dressed in middle of the road
               attire. The SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY bangs his gavel and calls
               the assembly to order.

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY
                         I call upon the member for Les
                         Landes and Vice-President of the
                         Chamber's Finance Committee,
                         Citizen Bastiat to address us on
                         the question of tax reform. Citizen
                         Bastiat has the floor!

                         Today it is my task to report to
                         you the conclusions of the Finance
                         Committee. As you know, the
                         Revolution of February, barely two
                         months ago, caused an economic
                         recession in our country which
                         continues to this day.
                         The uncertainty caused by the
                         collapse of the Monarchy, the
                         brutal repression of the people,
                         and the collapse of the stock
                         market has resulted in a serious
                         decline in tax revenue and a
                         significant increase in
                         unemployment. The initial reaction
                         of the Provisional Government was
                         to launch the National Workshops in
                         order to put the unemployed to work
                         and to increase direct taxes on
                         ordinary working people by 45%.
                         Both these measures have been an
                         utter disaster.

               There are boos and catcalls from the socialists on the left;
               shouts of abuse from the right at the socialist deputies.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Instead of cutting government
                         expenditure across the board,
                         including measures such as an end
                         to all government subsidies to
                         industry and bailouts for the
                         railway companies,

               There are now boos and catcalls from the conservative right;
               and abuse from the socialist left at the conservatives.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         And cutting taxes on the poorest
                         members of our society, especially
                         on food,

               There are cheers from the left.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         The government has done the
                         opposite. Unless we can agree on
                         the right mix of tax cuts and
                         expenditure cuts, the economic
                         crisis will continue and I fear
                         another explosion of discontent
                         such as we witnessed in February.

               The Chamber breaks down into name-calling from both sides as
               the Speaker tries to restore order.

                                                                CUT TO:

        68     INT. CHAMBER COMMITTEE MEETING ROOM - DAY               68

               A meeting of the Chamber's Finance Committee is underway in
               the same meeting room where Frederic and the economists
               discussed tariff reform unsuccessfully with Thiers the
               previous year. Frederic is presenting the case for taking
               radical and immediate action to solve their budget problems.

                         Gentlemen, we have reached a
                         breaking point. We have to do two
                         nearly impossible things to save
                         our financial situation. We have to
                         cut taxes on ordinary working
                         people and we have to cut spending
                         massively just to balance the
                         budget. The biggest single item of
                         expenditure is the military which
                         costs us fr. 400 million every year
                         and this cries out for cuts. 

               There are murmurs of strong disagreement from Members of the

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         My suggestion is an immediate cut
                         of fr. 100 million followed by an
                         attempt to negotiate a treaty with
                         England for mutual disarmament,
                         which would allow us to make
                         further cuts in the future.

                                   FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 1
                         Citizen Bastiat I think that is
                         unacceptable at the moment given
                         the widespread suspicion of
                         England's motives at this time.

                                   FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 2
                         I agree.

                         Well, the newest expenditure which
                         is rapidly getting out of control,
                         is spending on Louis Blanc's
                         National Workshops. The initial
                         prediction for the number of
                         unemployed we would have to support
                         in Paris was 10,000. This has
                         ballooned to over 100,000 and there
                         is no end in sight. I urge that
                         this boondoggle be closed down

                                   FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 2
                         Now that is more acceptable!

               There are murmurs of agreement among the committee members.

                         If we cut this relief program we
                         have to offer the poor people of
                         France something it return,
                         otherwise the burden does not fall
                         equally. I suggest an across the
                         board cut in tariffs on food and
                         clothing to 10% by value so these
                         essential items are cheaper to buy.

                                   FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 1
                         The conservative block will never
                         agree to that. You know tariff
                         reform failed last year, so why do
                         you think it would pass today?

                         Because we are in a crisis and
                         something drastic has to change or
                         we face catastrophe.

                                   FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 1
                         I suggest we call for a vote on the
                         measures we will recommend to the

                         All those in favour of cutting the
                         military budget by 25%?

               Only 3 out of 10 Committee members vote for it.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         All those in favour of cutting
                         tariffs to a maximum of 10% by

               Only 2 out of 10 Committee members vote for it.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         And all those in favour of
                         scrapping the National Workshops
                         program immediately?

               This time 8 out of 10 Committee members vote for it.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         I have to say I am disappointed in
                         you gentlemen.
                         We have to move faster and harder
                         on this than you seem to realise.

                                                                CUT TO:

        69     INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY                    69

               May 15 1848 and Frederic is giving his Report to the Chamber
               on the Finance Committee's recommendations to solve the
               budget crisis.

                         So, in conclusion Fellow Deputies,
                         the near unanimous recommendation
                         of the Finance Committee is that
                         the unsupportable financial demands
                         of the National Workshop program be
                         brought to an immediate end, that
                         the program be wound up, and that
                         the Chamber use the savings to
                         balance the budget and to look for
                         ways to cut taxes in order to
                         relieve the burden on the poorest
                         people in our community.

               There are boos and calls of "shame" from the left benches and
               applause from the right benches.

               The Speaker of the Chamber is about to call for vote on the
               Committee's recommendation when there is a noise at the main
               entrance to the Chamber and A GROUP OF ARMED MEN force their
               way in.

                                   INTRUDER 1
                         In the name of the people and the
                         Luxembourg Commission for Labour we
                         demand that the Assembly
                         immediately resign and hand power
                         over to a new Provisional

                                   DEPUTIES IN THE CHAMBER
                            (from nearly all the
                         Get out of here! Guards! Have these
                         men removed immediately.

               Frederic is stunned and remains on the podium not knowing
               what to do next. The intruder goes to the podium and pushes
               Frederic roughly aside. He raises his rifle and threatens the
               Deputies. The other intruders move to block the exit and to
               take up strategic positions around the Chamber.

                                   INTRUDER 1
                         Quiet! I have two further demands.
                         The first is that the new
                         Provisional Government pass a
                         decree pledging financial and
                         military support for our comrades
                         in Poland who are fighting their
                         oppressors and wish to follow the
                         glorious example of our nation in
                         building a new society for all its

                                   DEPUTIES IN THE CHAMBER
                            (from the right benches)
                            (from the left benches)

                                   INTRUDER 1
                         Our third demand is that the new
                         Provisional Government promise to
                         protect the integrity of the
                         National Workshops at all costs.

                                   DEPUTIES IN THE CHAMBER
                            (from the right benches)
                         This is madness!
                            (from the left benches)
                            Hear! Hear

               There is more commotion as a group of armed protesters enter
               the Chamber CARRYING LOUIS BLANC ON THEIR SHOULDERS. A cheer
               breaks out among the socialist deputies when they see who it
               is. Blanc is uncomfortable being carried around the Chamber
               as he did not want to enter the Chamber in this way but is
               powerless to stop them.

               After making a circuit of the Chamber the intruders put Louis
               Blanc down. By this time armed guards appear and begin
               arresting the intruders. They are surrounded, disarmed, and
               the spokesman at the podium is pulled down and arrested.
               There is much shouting but no shooting. The intrudes are all
               removed from the Chamber at gun point.

               When the noise dies down and order begins to be restored, the
               Speaker steps up to the podium.

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY
                         Gentlemen! I apologise for the
                         intrusions. Now perhaps some of you
                         can see what we are up against.

               There are boos and catcalls from the left benches.

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D)
                         Before we disperse, I want to call
                         for a vote on the recommendations
                         of the Finance Committee as
                         presented by Citizen Bastiat. All
                         those in favouring of immediately
                         closing the National Workshops

                                   DEPUTIES IN THE CHAMBER
                            (there is a deafening and
                              overwhelming cry)

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY
                         I think the "ayes" have it.
                         Assembly adjourned!

                                                                CUT TO:

        70     INT. FREDERIC'S OFFICE AT GUILLAUMIN HQ                 70

               Mid-June 1848. Frederic, Joseph, Gustave, and Thomas are in
               Frederic's office planning their next step.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         The word on the street is that
                         Louis Blanc and his socialist
                         friends are planning a big
                         demonstration at the end of the
                         week to protest the closing of the
                         National Workshops. This could get
                         really nasty.

                         I don't think Louis Blanc was
                         behind the invasion of the Chamber.
                         That was done by some of his
                         hothead supporters.

                         Yes, but he put the idea in their
                         heads that the state owed them a
                         job and a living at taxpayer

                         True enough I suppose. Even though
                         his solutions are wrong he has
                         tapped into a lot of popular
                         resentment about the lack of jobs
                         and the high price of food. We have
                         to counter that somehow.

                         What do you have in mind? Another


                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Will you never learn?

                         We have to appeal to the people
                         directly. Otherwise the socialists
                         will have won the war of ideas. 

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         We tried that already, and where
                         did that get us?

                         No we didn't. We appealed to the
                         average newspaper reader not the
                         average person in the street. This
                         time we will write from his or her
                         perspective. This time we will call
                         it "Jacques Bonhomme" or "Jack
                         Everyman" and write about events as
                         if Jacques Bonhomme himself were
                         describing them. Short and simple
                         and in the vernacular of the

                         It might work.

                         It will this time. I'm sure! I've
                         already written a couple of
                         articles which can also double as
                         wall posters. Thomas, you can put
                         them up as you are now an expert at
                         that sort of thing! Aren't you?

                         Yes, monsieur.
                            (he says a bit reluctantly)

                         Good! Take a look at this one. I am
                         offering a prize of 50,000 francs
                         for the best definition of the
                         state anyone can come up with.

                         You are kidding! You don't have
                         50,000 francs.

                         I know. It is a bit of poetic
                         license! But I want to get people's
                         attention. I want them to think
                         about the fact that the state can't
                         give anybody anything without
                         taking it from someone else first.
                         It can't be a universal big father
                         or big brother who can take care of
                         everybody's every need. That is a
                         great fiction which must be

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Good luck with that!

                         I also have another which will make
                         a great wall poster. A list of the
                         reasons why the National Workshops
                         are a bad idea for the country and
                         for ordinary people.

                         Monsieur, if I paste that up on the
                         walls they will only get torn down

                         Most likely. We'll just have to get
                         more printed then.

                                                                CUT TO:

        71     INT. LUXEMBOURG PALACE - DAY                            71

               There is a meeting taking place in the Luxembourg Palace
               between Louis Blanc and the leadership of the protests.

                                   LOUIS BLANC
                         We must defend the National
                         Workshops at all cost. You know
                         that. If we can get enough people
                         out in the streets to protest we
                         can put pressure back on those
                         spineless bastards in the Assembly
                         who are trying to close us down.
                         There are 100,000 on the Workshop
                         payroll and many more sympathisers
                         among the working class. The people
                         know how to build barricades, just
                         help them get motivated. Tell them
                         that the National Workshops are a
                         kind of insurance which anyone of
                         them might need one day in the
                         future when the economy goes bad.
                         If the government takes this away
                         then who knows what else they will
                         take from the working people of
                         this city. To add insult to injury
                         they are threatening to conscript
                         all those working in the National
                         Workshops into the army and send
                         them by force out into the
                         countryside. Spread out, don't
                         confront the troops head on. With
                         any luck they will make the same
                         mistakes as they did in February
                         and get cut off down the side
                         streets. Oh! One last thing. If you
                         see any wall posters or flyers from
                         Bastiat's free trade group. Tear
                         them down.

               The team leaders move out into the parade ground where people
               are gathering to form a large coordinated protest through the
               streets. They have banners which state "Save our National
               Workshops!" and "We have the Right to Work" and "To each
               according to his Needs!". 

               As the groups form up ready to march out into the streets the
               camera shows us a final fleeting glimpse of Delacroix's
               iconic painting "Liberty leading the People" draped in cloth
               and hidden from public view.

                                                                CUT TO:

        72     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            72

               June 22, 1848. There are four different sets of activity
               which come together on this day: the street marchers
               organised by Blanc's Luxembourg Commission of Labour
               protesting the closure of the National Workshops; other
               groups who are erecting hundreds of barricades across the
               streets of Paris in a reprise of February, some of whom
               support the protest against the closure of the Workshops and
               others who are unhappy about the bad economic condition
               France is in; Frederic's group of economists who are on the
               streets with their new magazine "Jacques Bonhomme" protesting
               about the protesters;
               and the soldiers who are getting into position with their
               rifles and artillery to crush the rebellion once and for all.

               First we see a large group of SEVERAL HUNDRED PROTESTERS from
               the Luxembourg Commission marching down a street with their
               banners and shouting "Save the National Workshops" and "We
               have a Right to a Job".

               Next we see shots of BARRICADES being erected in street after
               street (as described earlier). A bird's eye view of these
               streets shows how extensive the barricade building is (there
               are over 1,000 barricades across the city), with men, women
               and children assisting in their construction.

               Then we see TROOPS MASSING at the ends of the major
               boulevards but not doing anything for the time being.
               Ominously, we see DOZENS OF ARTILLERY PIECES being drawn up
               along with wagon loads of shells.

               Finally we see Gustave, Frederic, and Joseph at an
               intersection begin handing out their newly printed magazine
               "Jacques Bonhomme". As they hand out their sheets we see some
               of the passersby shaking their heads and throwing the sheets
               away as they go about their business.

               For comedic relief, we see Thomas starting to paste up the
               new wall posters. One of them is "The State" which says:

               "What is the State?
               Does the STATE have bread for every mouth, milk for every
               child, work for every arm, capital for every businesses, balm
               for every suffering, and answers to every question? 
               NO of course not. The state is the great fiction by which
               everyone endeavors to live at the expense of everyone else.
               It gives with one hand but takes with two!
               Don't be duped by the socialists!"

               The second one is Frederic's critique of the National

               "Close the National Workshops Now!
               The National Workshops do not Provide real jobs for real
               workers! They pay you a pittance to dig ditches for the
               government and fill them in again.
               Real jobs come from a thriving economy which is open, free,
               and growing.
               The National Workshops are bankrupting France and destroying
               the economy.
               End them Now!"

               As Thomas rounds the building he disappears from sight and
               pro-Blanc supporters appear and begin RIPPING DOWN HIS
               When Thomas comes back to his starting point he sees what
               they have done, shrugs, and begins posting them up again.

               A short time later we see Thomas and Frederic alone working a
               street where a hastily built barricade has suddenly appeared
               in the middle of the street. Frederic is asking the people on
               the barricade why they are doing this.

                         Citizen! Do you support the
                         National Workshops? Is this why you
                         are building the barricade?

                                   MAN AT BARRICADE 1
                         Not really. I feel sorry for those
                         out of work but we can't really
                         afford to support them like this.
                         It is not as though we are teaching
                         them a productive trade for the

                         So why the barricade?

                                   MAN AT BARRICADE 1
                         I'm sick of the taxes, I'm sick of
                         the corruption, I'm sick of the
                         squabbling in the Chamber. Nothing
                         is getting done to help people like
                         me. I've had enough. Things have to

                         Yes they do.

               GUNFIRE can be heard nearby.

                                   MAN AT BARRICADE 1
                         Quick! Take cover. They are coming

               We can see men and women running down the street towards the
               barricade. Some are carrying banners with their protest
               slogans "We have a Right to a Job" and "Save the National
               Workshops" which they throw to the ground as they run. The
               barricades consist of paving stones, overturned carriages,
               broken doors, furniture and other debris all chained

               A group of protesters on the barricades begin to chant "GIVE
               US BREAD, OR GIVE US LEAD!" taunting the soldiers as they

               The soldiers move down the street firing at the people on the
               barricade. Behind them other soldiers are setting up an
               ARTILLERY PIECE which is aimed at the barricade. Some of the
               protesters run into the side streets as soldiers fire volleys
               of rifle fire and the occasional artillery shell which hits
               the barricade. The soldiers fire methodically at the people,
               injuring some and killing others. Men begin firing back at
               the soldiers from the side streets and the windows of the
               upper stories of the houses along the street. Some people
               throw furniture and stones out of the windows onto the
               advancing soldiers.

               We see Frederic and Thomas clutching the stack of newspapers
               they were handing out on the street, running towards the
               barricade to seek shelter. Thomas drops his bundle of papers
               and stops to retrieve them:

                         No! Leave them!

               As Thomas fumbles about trying to pick up the papers FREDERIC
               IS HIT in the upper arm by a bullet and collapses behind the
               barricade. As he looks to see what happened to Thomas he is
               hit in the face by flesh and blood (perhaps some brain
               tissue) from THOMAS WHO HAS BEEN KILLED BY A BULLET TO THE

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Thomas, oh no! What have they done
                         to you? What have I done?

               He grabs Thomas body clutching it to him and then falls back
               onto the barricade losing consciousness from shock and loss
               of blood.

                                                                CUT TO:

        73     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            73

               As Frederic lies on the barricade holding the dead body of
               Thomas the camera shows a bird's eye view of the devastated
               streets of Paris with hundreds of abandoned and partly
               destroyed barricades.

               This time the soldiers have been successful and the
               protesters with their barricades have been defeated by
               coordinated artillery fire and more disciplined deployment of
               the troops.

               We see a group of soldiers rounding up a group of dishevelled
               protesters and lining them up against a wall in a side
               street. An officer gives the command and they are all
               SUMMARILY EXECUTED.

               Later, we see a group of soldiers who have arrested a man who
               they are roughing up and threatening TO SHOOT WITH A REVOLVER
               HELD TO THE HEAD. We see it is Louis Blanc who is very
               frightened. They do not shoot him but arrest him and drag him

               Later we can see people cleaning up the DEBRIS AND BROKEN
               GLASS; squads of solders and police leading away groups of
               arrested men; wagons carrying off the bodies of the dead

                                                                CUT TO:

        74     INT. DOCTOR'S SURGERY - DAY                             74

               After the riots Gustave is helping the injured Frederic to a
               doctor's surgery. He has lost a lot of blood and has injuries
               to his face and upper arms.

                            (very distraught)
                         What is happening to Thomas?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I got you away as fast as I could
                         before the soldiers came. They took
                         his body away with the others.

                         He's dead?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Yes. A lot of that blood on you is
                         his, poor boy.

                         I must see his body! I'm
                         responsible for him.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         After you are through with the
                         doctor I'll go and ask the soldiers
                         if we can have the body for burial.
                         Here we are.

               They enter the doctor's surgery where other victims of the
               shooting are being attended to.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D)
                         It is your turn.

               Frederic is helped into the surgery and the examination

                         You have lost quite a lot of blood
                         but a few stitches and some rest
                         will see you right. Nothing too
                         serious. No bones are broken. Do
                         you have any other pain? I see you
                         cough quite a lot.

                         Yes. In my throat.

                         Let me take a look.

               He begins feeling Frederic's throat and becomes very
               interested when he feels a lump.

                                   DOCTOR (CONT'D)
                         How long have you had this lump?

                         A couple of years. I sometimes have
                         trouble swallowing and speaking for
                         long periods can get difficult.

                         I'm afraid I have bad news for you.
                         I think it is what they call a

                         What's that?

                         A lump which continues to grow and
                         puts pressure on other tissue
                         around it. In your case the throat.

                         Can it be removed?

                         No. Not without killing you from
                         loss of blood or post-operative

                         What are you telling me?

                         I'm afraid it will eventually kill

                         How long do I have?

                         A year or two at the most. I can't
                         be sure. So if you have things you
                         need to do I would do them as soon
                         as possible.

               Frederic is very quiet as he digests the meaning of what the
               doctor has told him. He holds his head in his hands.

                         Will there be much pain?

                         I'm afraid there will be and it
                         will get worse. 

               He puts a small brown bottle on the table next to Frederic.

                                   DOCTOR (CONT'D)
                         I suggest you carry a bottle of
                         laudanum with you at all times and
                         take a sip when the pain gets bad.
                         You can buy it anywhere.

                         Thank you doctor. This is very

                         Yes, I know. Good luck. Do you have
                         a good friend to help you? There
                         will be some difficult times ahead.

                         Yes I do. Thank you doctor.

               Gustave takes the shaken Frederic home to his apartment.

                                                              FADE OUT.



ACT IV. Resolution (June 1848-50)

Victor Hugo opening the Peace Congress in Saint-Cecile Hall

[Victor Hugo opening the Peace Congress in Saint-Cecile Hall]

                                                               FADE IN:


               We see the a shot of the interior of the ORNATE LECTURE
               THEATRE in the Collge de France where Frederic will later
               give a guest lecture.

                                   FREDERIC (V.O.)
                         Eagerness to learn, the need to
                         believe in something, minds still
                         immune to age-old prejudices,
                         hearts untouched by hatred, zeal
                         for worthy causes, ardent
                         affections, unselfishness, loyalty,
                         good faith, enthusiasm for all that
                         is good, beautiful, sincere, great,
                         wholesome, and spiritual Ñ such are
                         the priceless gifts of youth. That
                         is why I dedicate this book to the
                         youth of France. The seed that I
                         now propose to sow must be sterile
                         indeed if it fails to quicken into
                         life upon soil as propitious as

                                                           DISSOLVE TO:

        76     INT. BASTIAT'S APARTMENT IN PARIS - DAY                 76

               Gustave has brought Frederic home to his apartment. They are
               sitting looking out the window while having a glass of wine.

                         This is rather funny when you think
                         of it.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         How so?

                         A politician who is losing his

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I suppose it is.

                         Now that I have a captive audience
                         of 900 people in the Chamber all I
                         will be able to do is croak at
                         them. What an indignity!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Your opponents will love it. They
                         couldn't silence you with their
                         guns or their arguments. They had
                         to wait for nature to intervene for

                            (he chokes on his wine as
                              he laughs)
                         Don't make me laugh. It hurts!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Sorry! But Frederic, your real
                         skill lies in writing. You'll have
                         to concentrate on that while your
                         strength lasts. Think of it as a
                         kind of division of labour.

                         How so?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Leave the speaking to the orators
                         like Lamartine and Faucher. You
                         should continue to write your
                         pamphlets and we'll circulate them
                         among the Deputies.

                         That might work. But I love
                         speaking to a good audience and see
                         their eyes light up when they get
                         the point of the argument.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         People love reading your sophisms.
                         They will last longer than a speech
                         which disappears into thin air.

                         Maybe you are right.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         And don't forget. A positive side
                         to all this is that it might free
                         up more of your time to finish your
                         treatise. If you have the will

                         I hope I do.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         How much have you done on it?

                         With a couple of months work I
                         could have the first volume
                         finished. I have lots of drafts and
                         sketches for the second volume but
                         I keep getting distracted.
                         Revolutions can be very distracting

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                            (he laughs)
                         Yes, I know! You should talk to
                         Hortense. Maybe she can help you
                         get away so you can work on your
                         treatise. She is very fond of you
                         and would do anything to help.


               Frederic is thinking that he is very fond of her too, and
               looks wistfully out the window.

                                                                CUT TO:

        77     INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY                    77

               Early July 1848. The Assembly is meeting to discuss measures
               to be taken after the June Days uprising.

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY
                         I now call for a vote on the
                         measure before the Assembly to
                         continue martial law for another
                         three months and to close all the
                         Political Clubs for the foreseeable
                         future. Those in favour?

               There is a loud cry of "Aye!"

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D)
                         Those against?

               A very much smaller group of Deputies say "Nay!"

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D)
                         The "Ayes" have it by a large
                         majority. The next order of
                         business is the motion to strip
                         Representative Louis Blanc of his
                         parliamentary privilege so he can
                         be arrested and charged with
                         complicity in the organisation of
                         the June Days uprising. It is
                         fitting that one of the speakers
                         against the motion is
                         Representative Bastiat. Citizen
                         Bastiat has the floor!

                         Thank you Monsieur Speaker! No one
                         could ever call me a friend of
                         Louis Blanc. I have strenuously
                         opposed his socialist views from
                         the moment I first heard them. I
                         have opposed them in my writings
                         and on the floor of this very
                         Chamber. I have done everything in
                         my power to close down his
                         operation at the Luxembourg Palace
                         as Vice-President of the Finance
                         Committee. All of that should be
                         blindingly obvious to you my fellow
                         Representatives. However, I want to
                         speak against the motion for two
                         reasons of principle and one reason
                         of practicality. The reasons of
                         principle are as follows. It is a
                         clear principle under the rule of
                         law that a person cannot be charged
                         with a crime which was not illegal
                         at the time it was committed. Louis
                         Blanc in June of this year was a
                         recognised member of this Chamber
                         and as such had then and still has
                         now all the privileges of that
                         office. To change this
                         retroactively would in itself be a
                         crime according to the rule of law.
                         The second reason of principle is
                         that he did not commit any act
                         which violated the law. Others
                         acted in this way but not him
                         He expressed ideas about the
                         organisation of labour and the
                         right to have a government funded
                         job which I find abhorrent but
                         again this expression of ideas was
                         not then and is not now illegal in
                         themselves. In fact I would go
                         further, this Chamber paid him as
                         the head of the Luxembourg
                         Commission to make these ideas
                         public and to attempt to put them
                         into practice. You gentlemen! You
                         paid him to do this. How can you
                         now arrest him for doing what you
                         paid him to do? My third and final
                         reason is one of practicality.
                         Stripping him of his parliamentary
                         immunity and putting him in jail
                         will do nothing to destroy the idea
                         of socialism. That will live on no
                         matter what you and this Chamber
                         may do to him. In fact, this might
                         make things worse by making him a
                         martyr to the socialist cause.
                         Socialism must be destroyed as an
                         idea if we are to eliminate it for
                         good, as I'm many in this Chamber
                         wish to do.

               There are cries of "hear! Hear! From the right; and "never"
               from the left.

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY
                         Thank you Citizen Bastiat. Now I
                         call for the vote. Those in favour
                         of stripping Representative Blanc
                         of his immunity?
                            (a very loud chorus of
                            (very few say "nay",
                              including Frederic)
                         The "ayes" have it 504 votes to

                                                                CUT TO:

        78     EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY                            78

               MARTIAL LAW has been declared in Paris. We see a huge new
               poster announcing this fact being plastered over the torn and
               fading political posters of the revolution. 

               The police and soldiers are methodically closing down all the
               Political Clubs, goguettes, and print shops in the working
               class sections of Paris. Men are dragged out of the
               buildings, lined up against the walls, their papers checked,
               and some are arrested and carted off in wagons. They complain
               about the harsh treatment but the police and soldiers just
               shove them against the wall or HIT THEM WITH THEIR RIFLE

               Wall posters with political slogans are torn down from the
               city walls. Print shops and book shops are ransacked with
               books and papers thrown into the streets to be carted off and

               The streets are still filled with the debris left over from
               the hundreds of barricades which had been erected during the
               June Days riots. Posters with "The Right to Work" are in
               tatters and lying on the pavement. Men are sweeping up the
               rubbish and filling wagons with paving stones, broken pieces
               of furniture and glass, and carriages.

                                                                CUT TO:

        79     INT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - DAY                          79

               Early July 1848. Guillaumin is meeting with the inner core of
               the Economists group to discuss their next step: Frederic,
               Michel Chevalier, Charles Coquelin, Gustave, Hortense
               Cheuvreux, Felicity Guillaumin, Joseph Garnier, Horace Say.

                         Ladies and Gentlemen, it is a sad
                         day for liberty in this city. We
                         have witnessed some extraordinary
                         scenes, ones I never thought I
                         would see in my lifetime. But
                         France has gone mad once again, and
                         once again the military has reacted
                         in the only way it knows how, to
                         shoot and kill their fellow
                         Frenchmen and women.

                         At least the socialist threat has
                         subsided for the moment.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         That's the problem. It has subsided
                         but not gone for good. We still
                         haven't won the battle of ideas.

                         That is why I have called you all
                         here today. To think about what we
                         do next. But first, we should
                         remember our young friend and
                         comrade Thomas who fell from a
                         soldier's bullet on a barricade not
                         2 kilometres from where we now

               Frederic has a tear in his eye and appears to choke. Mme
               Cheuvreux who is siting next to him squeezes him on the arm
               to show her support.

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         The declaration of martial law and
                         the suspension of civil liberties
                         affects us as well as the
                         socialists. We need to marshal our
                         forces for the next phase of the
                         struggle. I call for suggestions.
                         Frederic, any thoughts?

                         Those of us in the Chamber,
                         Wolowski, Faucher, and myself still
                         have our jobs to do. The
                         government's finances are still in
                         a mess so I have to keep pushing
                         for tax and expenditure cuts from
                         within the Finance Committee.
                         Wolowski and Faucher need to keep
                         fighting within the Chamber to keep
                         the socialists from inserting their
                         government funded "right to a job"
                         clause in the new constitutions
                         which is still being debated.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         That's all very well, but we still
                         have to keep trying to change
                         people's views about the justice
                         and viability of socialism in
                         practice. I want to try writing
                         something aimed at a more popular
                         audience, like Frederic's economic
                         sophisms but longer and more
                         comprehensive. I think he should
                         keep writing his anti-socialist
                         pamphlets as well. The always hit
                         their targets.

                         Coquelin and I were struck by
                         something Joseph said about the
                         difference between "socialism from
                         below" and "socialism from above."
                         We are seeing the destruction of
                         "socialism from below", from the
                         protesters in the street. The
                         police and military will soon put
                         an end to that, along with
                         everybody else's freedoms as well.
                         But what worries me is that the
                         next push for socialism will come
                         from within the Chamber and the
                         government bureaucracy. We are
                         seeing that now in the Chamber with
                         the discussion about the new
                         constitution, but what I really
                         fear the most is if Louis Napoleon
                         becomes President in the December
                         election. He is a born
                         interventionist and if he gets his
                         hands on the levers of power he
                         will create a new kind of
                         bureaucratic state socialism
                         imposed from above.

                         Heaven helps us!

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Let me add something to the mix. I
                         have been cultivating quite a few
                         friends in high bureaucratic
                         positions whom I think will have
                         senior positions in Louis
                         Napoleon's government, should he
                         get elected in December. I think I
                         can get them around to a free trade
                         position in time.

                         Good luck with that!

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         You'd be surprised what can be
                         achieved with behind the scenes

                         Better you than me! That is all I
                         can say!

               The meeting dissolves into general conversation.

                                                                CUT TO:

        80     INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY                    80

               September 1848. All through the late summer and fall of 1848
               the Chamber debates the wording of the new Constitution for
               the Second Republic. The key debate concerns a clause in
               which the government guarantees the right to a job for all
               Frenchmen to be paid for by the taxpayers. There is a bitter
               struggle between the Socialist deputies, like Considerant and
               Proudhon and Louis Blanc, who wanted the government to
               guarantee under the constitution the right of every
               individual to a government (i.e. taxpayer) funded job, and
               the Economists and liberals in the Chamber, such as
               Tocqueville, Faucher, Bastiat, and Wolowski, who strenuously
               opposed this. Lamartine took a middle of the road position
               believing the government should guarantee each person's
               "right to existence" but not necessarily the right to a
               government funded job. The President of the Constitutional
               Committee of the Chamber is trying to wind up its

                                   PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL
                         Citizens. It has been a long, hot
                         summer and we must conclude our
                         business so we can make our final
                         recommendations to the full Chamber 
                         on the wording of these key
                         passages in the Constitution. I
                         wish to enter into the record a
                         statement from Citizen Louis Blanc
                         who had been a member of this
                         Committee before he was disciplined
                         by the Chamber and forced into
                         exile for his role in the June Days
                         uprising. The Reporter will read
                         his statement.

                         Citizen Blanc states the following:
                         "Socialism predated the February
                         Revolution but blossomed as a
                         result of it.
                         I was appointed by the Provisional
                         Government to head a Commission for
                         the Workers with the intention of
                         exploring and even to begin
                         implementing a society-wide work
                         program to provide jobs for those
                         hardest hit by the brutal
                         competition which the system of
                         laissez-faire has unleashed upon
                         us. It is clear that the intent of
                         the Provisional Government was to
                         guarantee the "right to a job" of
                         all French citizens. It is the duty
                         of this Committee to implement this
                         wish by enshrining it in the
                         Constitution of the new Republic.
                         My economist opponents claim that
                         the Constitution should only
                         protect the "freedom of working"
                         but they ignore that a "right" has
                         no meaning unless one has the power
                         to act. In this case the right to
                         seek work means nothing if there is
                         no work to be done, or no tools to
                         do it with, or no credit to invest
                         in creating new jobs. Only the
                         State can guarantee this power or
                         capacity to work for all its
                         citizens, not just the propertied
                         and the wealthy. Thus it is our
                         duty to guarantee this right to our
                         people in our new constitution."

                                   PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL
                         Thnak you. I now call upon Citizen
                         Alexis de Tocqueville.

                         Citizen Blanc's theory of the
                         "right to a job" guaranteed by the
                         state, or I should say, by the
                         ordinary taxpayers of France, is
                         socialism, pure and simple. It may
                         be the aim of a small minority of
                         people within the Provisional
                         Government, but as the April
                         elections showed very clearly, it
                         is not the view held by the
                         majority of Frenchmen.
                         I put it to you that if we enshrine
                         the "right to a job" in the
                         Constitution we will have laid the
                         foundations for fully fledged
                         socialism in this country, if not
                         today then sometime tomorrow. The
                         socialists attack, either directly
                         or indirectly, the principle of
                         private property. Some like Citizen
                         Proudhon have called property
                         "theft" and others see in it the
                         origin of all the ills of the
                         world. Their plan for government
                         funded workshops and job creation
                         is an attack on property because in
                         order to fund these schemes they
                         have to confiscate the private
                         property of others to pay for the
                         wages and the tools of these
                         workers. Not only is socialism an
                         attack on property it is also an
                         attack on personal liberty and
                         shows complete contempt for the
                         individual. Socialists hold that
                         the State must not only act as the
                         director of society, but must
                         further be master of each man, and
                         not only master, but keeper and
                         trainer. In doing this, the
                         socialist government will be
                         creating a new system of serfdom.
                         Therefore, in my opinion, if we
                         wish to prevent the creation of
                         this new socialist state we must
                         act now and prevent the insertion
                         into the new Constitution of any
                         government guaranteed right to a
                         job and all the consequences for
                         liberty that this entails.

                                   PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL
                         Thank you. I next call Citizen

                         Thank you Citizen President. If one
                         understands by the phrase right to
                         work as the right of working (which
                         implies the right to enjoy the
                         fruit of one's labor), then one can
                         have no doubt on the matter.
                         As far as I'm concerned, I have
                         never written two lines which did
                         not have as their purpose the
                         defence of this notion. But if one
                         means by the right to work that an
                         individual has the right to demand
                         of the state that it take care of
                         him, provide him with a job and a
                         wage by force, then under no
                         circumstances does this bizarre
                         thesis bear up to close inspection.
                         Do I have the right to demand of
                         one of my fellow citizens that he
                         provide me with a job and a wage by
                         force? This right would obviously
                         violate his right to property. And,
                         if I do not have this right, and if
                         none of the other citizens who make
                         up the community have it either,
                         then how can we create it when one
                         group of people exercises it over
                         another group through the
                         intermediary of the State? My
                         goodness! Pierre does not have the
                         right to demand by force that Paul
                         supply him with a job and a wage;
                         but if the two of them establish a
                         common force paid for at common
                         expence, does Pierre then have the
                         right to call upon this force, to
                         use it against Paul, so that the
                         latter is forced to supply him with
                         a job? By creating this common
                         force, the right to work is born
                         for Pierre and the right to
                         property is dead for Paul! What
                         confusion! What word play! It is
                         for this reason that I strongly
                         object to the inclusion of the
                         "right to a job" clause in the new

                                   PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL
                         Thank you Citizen Bastiat. Finally,
                         I wish to call upon Citizen
                         Lamartine to conclude this session.

                         Thank you citizen President. We
                         have heard two extreme views
                         presented here today.
                         One calls for the state to assume
                         almost complete control over
                         property and labour in the name of
                         ending the free market's brutal and
                         destructive competition in order to
                         guarantee a minimum of comfort
                         provided by having some minimum of
                         paid employment. On the other hand,
                         we have heard others who believe
                         that any interference by the state
                         in the economic activities of
                         individuals is a profound violation
                         of their natural right to property
                         and liberty which should be avoided
                         at all costs. I think I speak for
                         the majority of this Committee when
                         I say I believe there is a middle
                         ground which we should consider
                         seriously. Property is not an

               Applause breaks out among a majority of those on the
               Committee. Lamartine smiles as he sees he is winning over his

                                   LAMARTINE (CONT'D)
                         It is capable of and in fact needs
                         to be improved when there are
                         glaring inequalities or temporary
                         hardships. I believe the new
                         Constitution and the new government
                         which will spring from it must have
                         the power and should have the duty
                         to guarantee the right to
                         existence, the right to live, to
                         all its citizens, regardless of
                         class. This means it must have the
                         power to care for the old and
                         infirm, the destitute, and the
                         temporarily unemployed. It must
                         live up to the grand principles
                         which have driven our Revolution:
                         Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. It
                         should never be tempted to abandon
                         them and replace them with two
                         other vile words "Buying and
                         Selling". That is not what our
                         Republic should stand for! 

               There is very loud applause after he has finished speaking.
               Tocqueville and Bastiat shake their heads in disbelief that
               their ally from the free trade movement would make such
               concession to the socialist minority on the Committee. 

                                   PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL
                         Citizen Lamartine I believe is
                         correct when he said that he speaks
                         for the majority of the Committee
                         when he recommends that the phrase
                         "right to a job" should be replaced
                         by the phrase "right to existence"
                         for those who are too old or sick
                         to care for themselves, and for
                         those who are in temporary
                         hardship. I move that we make this
                         recommendation to the Chamber in
                         our final report. All those in

                                   THE MAJORITY OF THE COMMITTEE MEMBERS

                                   PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL
                         The "Ayes" have it.

               Bastiat turns to Tocqueville as the Committee members leave
               the room.

                         Well said. We stopped the hard core
                         socialists from having their way,
                         but it looks like socialism is
                         coming in through the back door
                         this time. 

                         I fear it will. I fear it will.

        81     INT. HORTENSE CHEUVREUX'S HOME - DAY                    81

               September 1848. Frederic arrives at the Cheuvreux's house, he
               knocks and is admitted by a servant.

                         Monsieur Bastiat is here, madame.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         How nice to see you Frederic, do
                         come in! To what do I owe this
                         pleasure? Have you come to amuse me
                         with some of your bons mots?

                         I'm afraid not Hortense. I would
                         like a private word with you if I

               They enter the drawing room and sit facing each other.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Hortense, I have some bad news. I
                         have a serious throat condition.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Oh my goodness! How serious?

                         Very serious. I may not have long
                         to live the doctor tells me.

               Hortense jumps out of her chair to embrace Frederic.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         How long?

                         Perhaps two years.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         No! No! That can't be!

                         That is why I have come to ask you
                         for your help.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Anything Frederic! What can I do?

               She pulls herself together after the initial shock and
               becomes much more serious.

                         As you know, there are a couple of
                         projects I want to finish before
                         the end comes.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I know. Especially that damn
                         treatise which you never seem to be
                         able to finish.

                         Exactly. I can't seem to get the
                         free time to work on it without

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         We have the perfect place for you.
                         Casimir and I have a hunting lodge
                         in the Saint-Cloud woods outside
                         the city. We hardly ever use it. I
                         can set you up there for as long as
                         you like.

                         That sounds perfect!

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         But you have to promise me one
                         thing Frederic.

                         What is that?

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         You must finish that damn treatise!
                         I'm sick of hearing about it.

                         I promise. It WILL be the last
                         thing I ever do. I'll make sure you
                         get the first copy off the press.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Signed by you of course.

                         Of course!

               She goes over to him and reaches for his hand. He squeezes
               her hand in gratitude.

                                                                CUT TO:

        82     INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY                                 82

               Early summer 1849. Hortense comes to see how Frederic is
               progressing with his treatise. He is PLAYING HIS CELLO in the
               sitting room when there is a knock at the door of the Hunting

                         Come in Hortense!

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I didn't mean to disturb you. I've
                         come to see how you are settling
                         in. Do you have everything you

                         Yes, almost everything. I miss my
                         daily newspapers. Thomas used to
                         bring them to me every morning.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I'll have them sent to you.

                         I can't thank you enough for
                         helping me like this. It is a
                         beautiful place to read and write. 

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I thought you would like it.

               Hortense moves over to his desk to look at the papers he had
               been working on. We can see the BOTTLE OF LAUDANUM he uses to
               ease the pain of his coughing on the desk.

                         I know what you are going to ask.
                         How is my treatise coming along?

               She sits in a chair next to the long desk which faces out the
               French doors into the woods.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         My plan is to have volume one
                         finished by the end of the summer.
                         That is the first pile. The second
                         pile are notes and sketches for the
                         second volume. Who knows when that
                         will be finished.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Guillaumin will be so pleased to
                         get this! And the third pile?

                         You weren't supposed to see that.
                         It is my most recent popular work.

               Hortense picks up the third pile and begins to leaf through

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         So, you have found some more
                         sophisms which need to be refuted.
                         You really are incorrigable!

               She begins to read out a passage.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX (CONT'D)
                         "In the sphere of economics an
                         action, a habit, an institution or
                         a law engenders not just one effect
                         but a series of effects. Of these
                         effects only the first is
                         immediate; it is revealed
                         simultaneously with its cause, it
                         is seen. The others merely occur
                         successively, they are not seen; we
                         are lucky if we foresee them." So
                         you are writing about "invisible
                         economics" now?

                         Yes, in a way. Not invisible, but
                         rather, not seen.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I see, if you will pardon the pun.
                         I have to hand it to you Frederic,
                         you have a way with words!

               He laughs.

                         Thanks! I'll have to see if I can
                         use that joke at your next soirée.

               They both laugh and look at each other with tenderness tinged
               with sadness.

                                                                CUT TO:

        83     INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY                                 83

               It is late afternoon and the sun is streaming in through the
               large bay windows of the sitting room which looks out into
               the woods. Hortense and Frederic are sitting in comfortable
               armchairs sipping wine and talking. Their friendship has been
               developing steadily over the summer.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Why did you come to Paris Frederic?

                         You know why! To create a free
                         trade movement, abolish trade
                         restrictions, and improve the lives
                         of ordinary French people.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Yes, but that is a task more
                         suitable for a young man, Frederic,
                         not someone your age.

               They sit without speaking for a while Frederic considers his

                         I'm not that old.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         But old enough to have some land
                         and property, some wealth and the
                         comforts that brings, good friends
                         and colleagues who know and respect


               Again, they sit without speaking for a while.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         So why did you leave all that

                         I thought there should be something
                         more to my life than that, as
                         comfortable as it was.

               He looks at the growing pile of papers on his desk which will
               one day become his economic treatise. Hortense sees this.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         So you thought you had a book in
                         you. That you had something to say.

                            (he pauses)
                         Maybe two.

               There is another long pause as they look out the window at a
               pair of birds pecking at some crumbs lying on the ground.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I think you might be right. That
                         will be something to regret I

                         Yes. And there is another regret I
                         have Hortense. ...

               They continue looking at the pair of birds. A small tear
               appears in Hortense's eye. They say nothing more.

                                                                CUT TO:

        84     INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY                                 84

               Frederic works all summer 1849 at a furious pace and
               completes the 1st volume of Economic Harmonies. We see his
               work routine, playing the cello, reading, writing, and RIDING
               HIS HORSE THROUGH THE WOODS when he has a writer's block.
               Hortense makes one of her regular visits to see how he is

               There is a knock at the door of the Hunting Lodge.

                         Come in Hortense!

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         I have fresh bread and some of your
                         favourite smoked Gascogne ham.

               Her maid takes a basket into the kitchen and then leaves.

                         Thank you!

               He takes her by the hand in welcome and then she walks
               towards his desk to see what he is working on.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         How is the wine supply holding up?

                         It is getting a bit of a beating.
                         The words flow when the wine does.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Speaking of words, dare I ask?

                         You have every right to ask after
                         what you have done for me. Take a
                         look, there on the desk.

               He waves to a large pile of papers on his desk, and coughs as
               he does so.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         So this is volume 1. It looks
                         finished. Well done. Do you mind?

               She reaches for the pile, sits down and begins reading a
               chapter. Frederic sits down in a comfortable chair by the
               window with a glass of wine and stares out at the woods while
               she reads. The pair of birds are back looking for food
               together. Every so often she stops to ask him a question on
               some technical economic matter (she is very knowledgeable)
               which he answers tersely.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX (CONT'D)
                         When you say that all exchanges are
                         the mutual exchange of "a service
                         for a service" how do you measure

                         There is an equivalence in the
                         value of the things exchanged.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Not an equality?


               Some time passes in quiet reading.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         And how do you measure that
                         equivalence then?

                         The equivalence as judged by the
                         two parties engaged in the exchange
                         at that moment in time.

               Some more time passes in quiet reading.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Hmm É And land rent you think is
                         just another kind of service?

                         Yes. There is nothing special about
                         the contribution of the soil and
                         the sun to the creation of value.
                         No more than the contribution of
                         steam power or electricity.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Hmm É  Dunoyer and the old school
                         won't like this.

                         Too bad É 

               Some more time passes in quiet reading.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         You must finish this Frederic. It
                         is very good É 

                         Yes, I think so. But there is so
                         much more that needs to be done.

               Frederic coughs again. Hortense puts her arm around him as he
               has a VIOLENT COUGHING FIT. She looks at Frederic knowing
               that he will die before he can finish his treatise. She looks
               very sad at the prospect. He looks at her showing that he
               knows this too.

                                                                CUT TO:

        85     INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY                                 85

               Garnier visits Frederic to encourage him to give one of the
               keynote speeches at the Peace Congress he is organising in
               August 1849.

                         I know you are tired and not well
                         Frederic, but you did promise me
                         you would speak at the Peace

                         I know I did.

                         Victor Hugo has agreed to act as
                         President of the Congress. Richard
                         Cobden will be there with a large
                         British contingent. You must speak.
                         Everyone is counting on it.

                         I have already said what I want to
                         say in my articles. I don't have to
                         say it again.

                         Yes you do. You have to keep saying
                         it until things change. And you
                         have to say it before this


                         Because you are an economist and
                         too many of them are well-meaning
                         religious moralists who don't
                         understand the economic imperative
                         of disarmament, or the dire
                         political consequences which will
                         follow if we don't disarm and cut

                         I just hope my voice can stand up
                         to the strain. Let me think about
                         it Joseph. I want to go for a ride
                         to clear my head.

                                                                CUT TO:

        86     EXT. SAINT CLOUD FOREST - DAY                           86

               Frederic needs to think about whether he can follow through
               with his promise to give one of the keynote speeches at the
               forthcoming Peace Congress. He goes riding through the Saint
               Cloud woods where he sees the MILITARY FORTIFICATION WALL
               which encloses Paris on its western side. As he rides beside
               the wall for several miles he passes the MASSIVE NEW FORT at
               Mont-Valérien and becomes angrier and angrier at the waste of
               time, money, and labour that went into building and paying
               for the wall, the ring of forts, the conscription of young
               men into the army and their labour used to build the wall,
               and all other forms of military spending. By the end of the
               ride he is determined to give his speech calling for
               disarmament and tax cuts.

                                                                CUT TO:

        87     INT. SAINT-CECELIA HALL - DAY                           87

               23 August 1849. The International Peace Congress organised by
               Joseph Garnier is taking place in a large concert hall, Saint
               Cecelia Hall, in the centre of Paris. It holds 2,000 people
               and is full of delegates from England, America, and all over

               It is August and it is hot and humid in Paris at that time of
               year and the hall is packed and stuffy.

               The President of the Congress is the poet and novelist VICTOR
               HUGO. Discussion is underway of the five main resolutions
               before the Congress. RICHARD COBDEN is speaking and is close
               to concluding.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         I have the honour to submit to your
                         consideration a motion condemnatory
                         of loans for warlike purposes. My
                         object is to promote peace by
                         withholding the sinews of war. I
                         propose that this Congress shall
                         make an appeal to the consciences
                         of all those who have money to

               A murmur of concern at this radical proposition goes around
               the hall.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN (CONT'D)
                         I address myself to those who, by
                         their loans, really hire and pay
                         men who commit atrocities, and we
                         say, "It is you who give strength
                         to the arm which murders innocent
                         women and helpless old age; it is
                         you who supply the torch which
                         reduces to ashes peaceful and
                         inoffensive villages and on your
                         souls will rest the burden of these
                         crimes against humanity." I urge
                         the Congress to vote in favour of
                         the Resolution "The Congress
                         condemns all loans and taxes
                         intended for the prosecution of
                         wars of ambition and conquest."

               There is loud and enthusiastic cheering from the audience.

                                   VICTOR HUGO
                         I thank the Honourable speaker and
                         call for the Vote. Those in favour

                                   THE DELEGATES

                                   VICTOR HUGO
                         Those against ...
                            (there is silence)
                         The vote for the resolution is
                         carried unanimously. I now call
                         upon our final speaker to address
                         the Congress on the resolution "to
                         call the immediate attention of
                         governments to the necessity of a
                         general and simultaneous
                         disarmament." As I read these
                         words, a sad and bitter thought
                         presents itself to my mind. It
                         results, from a comparison of
                         statistical accounts, that the
                         nations of Europe expend each year
                         for the maintenance of armies a sum
                         amounting to two billion francs,
                         and which, by adding the expense of
                         maintaining establishments of war,
                         amounts to three billion. Add to
                         this the lost produce of the days
                         of work of more than 2,000,000 men
                         Ñ the healthiest, the most
                         vigorous, the youngest, the elite
                         of our population Ñ a produce which
                         you will not estimate at less than
                         one billion francs, and you will be
                         convinced that the standing armies
                         of Europe cost annually more than
                         four billion. Ladies and Gentlemen,
                         peace has now lasted thirty-two
                         years, and yet in thirty-two years
                         the enormous sum of one hundred and
                         twenty-eight billion francs has
                         been expended during a time of
                         peace on account of war! Suppose
                         that the people of Europe, in place
                         of mistrusting each other, had
                         spent this enormous sum on peace
                         instead of war. What if this sum
                         had been given to labour, to
                         intelligence, to industry, to
                         commerce, to navigation, to
                         agriculture, to science, to art? I
                         will let you draw your conclusions.
                         I now call upon a man who is an
                         economist and thus more fit than I
                         am to address these matters, M.
                         Frederic Bastiat who is a
                         Representative of the People in the
                         National Assembly and a
                         Corresponding Member of the French
                         Institute. M. Bastiat!

               Frederic comes to the podium accompanied by considerable

                         At this stage of the discussion, I
                         shall only take up your time to
                         make a few observations on the
                         subject of disarmament. It is my
                         opinion that the cause of external
                         peace is also that of internal
                         order. A powerful military state is
                         forced to exact heavy taxes, which
                         engender misery, which in its turn
                         engenders the spirit of social
                         disorder and of revolution. These
                         heavy taxes, notwithstanding the
                         best intentions on the part of the
                         legislator, are necessarily most
                         unfairly distributed; whence it
                         follows that great armaments
                         present two causes of revolution Ñ
                         economic misery in the first place,
                         and secondly, the deep feeling that
                         this misery is the result of

               He coughs and takes a sip of his laudamum.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         The first kind of military taxation
                         that I observe is called
                         conscription. The young man who
                         belongs to a wealthy family,
                         escapes by the payment of two or
                         three thousand francs; the son of
                         an artisan or a labourer, is forced
                         to throw away the seven best years
                         of his life. Can we imagine a more
                         dreadful inequality? Do we not know
                         that it caused the people to revolt
                         even under the Empire, and do we
                         imagine that it can long survive
                         the revolution of February? The
                         second kind of military taxation is
                         indirect taxation. Does the
                         government come directly to us and
                         ask us for a quarter, a third, or a
                         half of our incomes? No: that would
                         be impracticable; and consequently,
                         to arrive at the desired end, it
                         has recourse to a trick, and gets
                         our money from us without our
                         perceiving it, by subjecting us to
                         an indirect tax laid on food. This
                         is a crying injustice inflicted
                         upon the poor to the advantage of
                         the rich. 
                         These two kinds of military
                         taxation, conscription and indirect
                         taxation, will lead to the
                         perpetuation and systematization if
                         injustice in this country. And, is
                         it not certain that this injustice
                         will, sooner or later, engender
                         disaffection? disaffection which is
                         all the more dangerous because it
                         is legitimate, because its
                         complaints are well-founded,
                         because it has reason on its side,
                         because it is supported by all men
                         of upright minds and generous
                         hearts, and, at the same time, is
                         cleverly managed by persons whose
                         intentions are less pure, and who
                         seek to make it an instrument for
                         the execution of their ambitious
                         designs. In France because, in
                         consequence of our ancient
                         electoral laws, the wealthy class
                         had the management of public
                         business, the people think that the
                         inequality of the taxes is the
                         fruit of a systematic greed. This
                         is only partly true. It is also the
                         necessary consequence of the
                         increase in the level of taxation.
                         The very nature of things has
                         placed a radical incompatibility
                         between the increased level of
                         taxation and their unequal
                         imposition. There is, then, only
                         one means of diverting from this
                         country the calamities which menace
                         it, and that is, to equalize
                         taxation ; to equalize it, we must
                         reduce it; to reduce it, we must
                         diminish our military force. For
                         this reason, amongst others, I
                         support with all my heart the
                         resolution in favour of a
                         simultaneous disarmament. And if
                         our governments are not willing to
                         take this crucial step, then it is
                         up to the people of the world to do
                         it for them. Let me conclude in the
                         words of our national poet
                         Béranger: "People of the World!
                         While your cities burn, your
                         dictators have the impudence to
                         count and recount with the tip of
                         their mocking sceptres the bodies
                         which have fallen in battle, which
                         history now calls a bloody triumph.
                         People of the World! You go
                         helplessly like poor beasts of
                         burden from one heavy and inhuman
                         yoke to another. People of the
                         World! Form a Holy Alliance, take
                         each other by the hand, and Unite
                         in Opposition!"

               There is loud and vociferous applause from all the Delegates.

               Hugo steps forward to call for the vote on the Resolution:

                                   VICTOR HUGO
                         Having heard the speaker, I now
                         call for a vote by the Congress on
                         the Resolution "to call the
                         immediate attention of governments
                         to the necessity of a general and
                         simultaneous disarmament". Those in

                                   ALL THE CONGRESS DELEGATES
                            (there is universal

                                   VICTOR HUGO
                         Those against?
                         The Ayes have it by a unanimous

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Mr. President! May I have the

                                   VICTOR HUGO
                         The Honourable Mr. Cobden has the

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Mr President, now that our
                         proceedings are drawing to a close
                         I would like to call for some
                         English cheers.

               The large English delegation stand and look towards Cobden.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN (CONT'D)
                         Hip! Hip!

                                   THE ENGLISH DELEGATION

               Cobden with his hand urges the rest of the Congress to stand
               and join in. They look very puzzled at this strange English

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Hip! Hip!

                                   THE DELEGATES

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Hip! Hip!

                                   THE DELEGATES

                                                                CUT TO:

        88     INT. HORTENSE CHEUVREUX'S SALON - NIGHT                 88

               A few days after the Peace Congress Frederic attends another
               of Hortense's soirees where he meets ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE,
               THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS. Frederic is sitting in one
               of the rooms surrounded by a small group of well dressed

                                   GUEST 1
                         M. Bastiat, what was that passage
                         you read out at the end of your
                         speech the other day?

                         It was from a song by Béranger.

                                   GUEST 1
                         Oh, that rabble rouser! Is he still

                         Yes. In fact he was elected to the
                         Constituent Assembly when I was.

                                   GUEST 1
                         Perhaps you should have sung it?
                         That would have been amusing.

                         I'll sing it now if you like.

               The guests are a little alarmed at this prospect. Frederic
               begins SINGING the refrain very quietly. 

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         "People of the World! Form a Holy
                         Alliance, take each other by the
                         hand, and Unite in Opposition!"

               But has to stop abruptly in pain.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         I'm sorry. My singing voice is not
                         good right now.

                                   GUEST 2
                         I'm not convinced that songs and
                         fables are the best way to examine
                         serious matters like foreign policy
                         and expenditure on the army.

                         Oh, I don't know. It seems to get
                         people's attention. You know La
                         Fontaine has a lot to say about
                         government expenditure.

                                   GUEST 2
                         I can't imagine he did. He wrote
                         fables and children's stories.

                         Do you know the one about the
                         weasel and the granary?

                                   GUEST 2
                         Of course. Every child does.

                         What do you think the weasel
                         represents, the weasel who breaks
                         into the farmer's granary through a
                         crack in the wall, gets fat eating
                         his grain, and then can't get back
                         out through the crack when the
                         farmer comes looking to kill him
                         with his spade?

                                   GUEST 2
                         I have no idea.

                         The military which eats up so much
                         of the taxpayers money each year.

                                   GUEST 1
                         And the farmer is the angry

                         Exactly! Every weasel needs to
                         remember that one day the farmer
                         will come after him with a spade.

                                   GUEST 2
                         That's absurd! It is just a
                         children's story.

                         If you say so. Please excuse me
                         ladies and gentlemen, I need to get
                         a drink.

               As Frederic leaves the room Alexis de Tocqueville, the
               Foreign Minister, comes up to him.

                         Excuse me M. Bastiat. Could I take
                         a moment of your time?

                         Of course.

               Tocqueville leads him into an adjacent room and closes the
               door. They sit down.

                         There are some in the government
                         who were very impressed with your
                         speech at the Peace Congress.

                         Thank you. I put a lot of thought
                         into it and seemed to be well

                         I have been asked to see if you
                         would be prepared to go to England
                         to speak to Mr. Cobden about the
                         possibility of a disarmament
                         agreement between France and
                         Britain. You seem to have a very
                         good relationship with Cobden ... 

                         For some years now.

                         Good. This meeting would have to be
                         an unofficial one at the moment, as
                         there are still people in the
                         government who are opposed to this.

                         Including our "Prince-President?"

                         Perhaps. At this moment. That is
                         all I can say. We want to find out
                         from Mr. Cobden who in the British
                         government might also be interested
                         in pursuing this and what their
                         strength is in the House. We would
                         also like to know how much effort
                         Mr. Cobden would be prepared to
                         make to take this matter further.

                         I see. I am willing to do this but
                         I need to know what support you
                         have in the cabinet.

                         Naturally. We can talk about that

                                                                CUT TO:

        89     EXT. THE ENGLISH CHANNEL - DAY                          89

               Early October 1849. Frederic is sitting on the deck of the
               boat as it makes its way across the choppy waters of the
               channel. We see well dressed English men and women strolling

                                                                CUT TO:

        90     INT. THE REFORM CLUB - DAY                              90

               Frederic has crossed the Channel to carry out Foreign
               Minister Tocqueville's request to speak to Cobden about
               disarmament. Frederic and Cobden are meeting in one of the
               BEAUTIFUL WOOD PANELLED ROOMS in the Reform Club in London.

                         This is an impressive building. I
                         imagine a lot of political reforms
                         have been hatched from within these

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         There certainly have been, and I
                         expect a lot more will be! Like us
                         here today. Tell me, what does M.
                         Tocqueville have in mind?

                         Well, he has not been completely
                         forthcoming about what he really
                         wants. It is still a bit
                         mysterious. My hunch is that he and
                         a group of liberal-minded
                         politicians, myself included, are
                         worried what will happen as our
                         "Prince-President" consolidates his

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Isn't he limited to only one term
                         in office?

                         Yes, but he is a Bonaparte don't
                         forget and the Bonapartes believe
                         that they are born to rule.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         In the name of the people!

                         Of course.
                            (they laugh)
                         Always in the name of the people!

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         And the glory of France!

                         And the glory of France! 
                            (they laugh again)
                         But there are rumours that he will
                         try to legally get around the
                         constitutional limits on a second
                         term, and if that fails, since he
                         has already crowned himself "Prince
                         President", he could see himself as
                         France's next emperor.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         God help us!

                         Indeed! And we know what the
                         Bonapartes do when they get hold of
                         an empire.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Start wars and seize territory!
                            (they laugh again)
                         We shouldn't laugh but they are so
                         damn predictable, these tyrants. So
                         Tocqueville thinks that he might be
                         able to head this off with our

                         Yes. He was appointed Minister of
                         Foreign Affairs in June but he
                         despises the Prince-President and
                         he knows that. So Tocqueville could
                         get rolled at any time. Hence this
                         quick trip. He thinks that if you
                         and I can arrange something he
                         could then present that as a fait
                         accompli to the President who likes
                         the popular acclaim it would bring
                         and then he would move on to
                         something else. He is easily

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         As I see it, the problem with the
                         Liberals and the Reform group in
                         Parliament is that they are split
                         into a free trade and peace
                         faction, which would be very much
                         in favour of a disarmament
                         agreement between France and
                         England, and a liberal but still
                         pro-colony and pro-empire group
                         which are not in favour. The
                         problem with any disarmament
                         proposal is that the Tories would
                         use it as a wedge to split the two
                         reformist groups. It would be very

                         I see.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Furthermore, if your President were
                         to declare himself an Emperor the
                         British public would be outraged
                         and all bets would be off, on this
                         side of the Channel anyway. The
                         hatred for old "Boney" still runs
                         deep in this country I'm afraid.

                         I'm not surprised. And if
                         Tocqueville were to be dumped by
                         the Prince-President, all bets
                         would be off on our side as well.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Look, I'll sound out some of my
                         colleagues to see what they think.
                         It is probably worth a chance even
                         if it is a small one.

                         Thanks. It is worth a try. On
                         another matter the free trade
                         movement is dead in France at the

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Yes, I know. You were so close in

                         Not as close as we thought. But you
                         should keep an eye out for Michel
                         Chevalier. He is a very solid free
                         trader and he is close to the
                         Prince-President.  Hard to believe
                         I know, but he is! Some time in the
                         future you might be able to play
                         the same trick Tocqueville is
                         trying to do with disarmament.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Go over the French people's heads
                         and go straight to the President?

                         Yes. Chevalier would be your man to
                         go to in Paris.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Thanks! I'll keep that in mind.

                                                                CUT TO:

        91     INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY                    91

               November 1849. Frederic's health is rapidly failing and he is
               finding it harder to speak in the Chamber of Deputies. In one
               of his last speeches in the Chamber he joins in the debate
               concerning the Article 415 of the Civil Code which bans
               workers from forming unions to demand higher wages and better
               working conditions. REPRESENTATIVE MORIN has proposed an
               amendment to the Code.

                                   REPRESENTATIVE MORIN
                         Citizen Representatives, the
                         amendments before you are designed
                         to rectify a glaring injustice in
                         the Civil Code which punishes
                         individuals who voluntarily wish to
                         form an association or a "union",
                         to discuss matters relating to
                         their work with their peers, and to
                         negotiate freely and peacefully
                         with others over working conditions
                         and pay. 

               There are catcalls and booing from the Right of the Chamber
               and cheers from the Left.

                                   REPRESENTATIVE MORIN (CONT'D)
                         The way Article 415 of the Code is
                         presently phrased it punishes any
                         worker who attempts to raise their
                         wages and improve their conditions
                         regardless of how they go about
                         doing so. It punishes the peaceful
                         and voluntary acts of most workers
                         exactly the same way it punishes
                         the minority of workers who engage
                         in violence and intimidation to
                         achieve these same ends. Under the
                         current law what is forbidden and
                         punished is the very act of seeking
                         an improvement in conditions and
                         pay and not how that might be
                         achieved. My amendment is as
                         follows: "to punish only those
                         individuals who attempt to raise
                         wages" ...

               There is cheering from the Right of the Chamber.

                                   REPRESENTATIVE MORIN (CONT'D)
                         "or lower wages" ...

               There is cheering from the Left.

                                   REPRESENTATIVE MORIN (CONT'D)
                         Let me finish! ... "by violence or
                         threats of violence or other
                         individual or collective means of
                         intimidation, by either party." The
                         law should punish only those who
                         engage in violence, not those who
                         exercise their rights to freedom of
                         association and freedom of speech,
                         for example by forming a trade

               There is opposition coming from both sides of the Chamber.

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY
                         Thank you Citizen Representative
                         Morin. I now call upon Citizen
                         Bastiat to address the Chamber.

                         Thank you Monsieur Speaker. I beg
                         the Chamber's patience as I
                         struggle with my failing voice. I
                         hope I can be heard.

               A shout of "speak up!" is heard from the back of the Chamber.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         The last time I addressed the
                         Chamber on labour matters was when
                         I opposed the inclusion of the
                         "right to a job" clause in the new

               There are boos from the Left of the Chamber.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         I am pleased to say we were partly
                         successful in doing that.

               There are boos from the Left and cheers from the Right.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         But what I want to do here today is
                         to speak in support of Citizen
                         Morin's amendments because, and
                         this might surprise the Chamber,
                         for EXACTLY the same reasons as I
                         opposed the right to a job clause
                         last year.

               Interjections are coming from sides of the Chamber.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Let me explain!

               He takes a sip from his bottle of Laudanum as his voice
               begins to fail from the pain of speaking so loudly.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         The law wishes to punish a man for
                         refusing to work for another under
                         a certain set of conditions. Does a
                         man not have the right to refuse to
                         sell his work at a rate that does
                         not suit him? 

               There are cheers from the Left.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Some will say that this is true
                         when it concerns an individual, but
                         not true when it concerns a group
                         of men in association. But, sirs,
                         an action that is innocent in
                         itself does not become criminal
                         because it is multiplied by a
                         certain number of men. I cannot
                         therefore see how it can be said
                         that the stoppage of work is a
                         guilty act. If one man has the
                         right to say to another "I will not
                         work under such and such a
                         condition", two or three thousand
                         men have the same right; they have
                         the right to withdraw. That is a
                         natural right which ought to be a
                         legal right as well.

               There are more cheers from the Left.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         When I am standing before an
                         employer, we discuss the price, the
                         one he is offering me does not suit
                         me, I commit no act of violence and
                         withdraw, and you tell me that it
                         is I who am undermining the freedom
                         of the employer because I am
                         damaging his business! Take care
                         lest what you are proclaiming is
                         none other than slavery. For what
                         is a slave if not a man obliged by
                         law to work under conditions that
                         he rejects?

               Calls of "Hear! Hear!" from the Left. Frederic begins to have
               a coughing fit but recovers enough to conclude his speech.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Excuse me Citizen Representatives.
                         Let me conclude by saying that, in
                         practice, your law is full of
                         inequalities; it does not apply
                         exactly and proportionally to both
                         parties whose antagonism you wish
                         to remove. There is one way to
                         remove antagonism between two
                         parties: by treating them in an
                         equal manner, and prohibiting force
                         and coercion in all its forms. This
                         is why I support Citizen Morin's
                         amendments  and urge you to do as

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY
                         Thank you Citizen Bastiat. And I
                         now call for the vote on Citizen
                         Morin's proposed amendments to the
                         labour law. Those in favor?

               About one third of the Chamber mainly from the Left say

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D)
                         Those against?

               About two thirds of the Chamber, mainly from the Right and
               Centre, say "Nay."

                                   SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D)
                         I think the "Nays" have it. The
                         amendments are rejected by the

        92     INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY                                 92

               It is summer 1850 and Frederic is again living in the
               Cheuvreux's Hunting Lodge over the summer trying to finish
               his last writing projects, the long pamphlet "What is Seen
               and What is Not Seen" and "The Law". Frederic is working
               quietly at his desk when he hears a knock at the door.
               Hortense and Gustave enter. Frederic is noticeably WEAKER AND

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Good morning Frederic. I have
                         brought you some lunch and some
                         good news.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Hello Frederic!

                         Thank you Hortense. Hello Gustave.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Guillaumin loves the manuscript and
                         it is being typeset. The book will
                         be released very soon.

                         That is very good news. It is
                         relief to know it will be printed.
                         At least part 1.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         How is part 2 coming along?

                         Not so good. I haven't touched it
                         in a while. It is too hard to focus
                         on something that complex. So I am
                         working on something else which is

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Is there anything I can get to help

                         Not right now.

               Hortense turns to Frederic's desk and picks up his manuscript
               for "What is Seen and What is Not Seen" and begins reading
               while Gustave and Frederic talk.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Guillaumin showed me the manuscript
                         of your treatise. There is some
                         radically new stuff there Frederic
                         I'd like to talk to you about.

                         Of course. Take a seat.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         You know your new theory about
                         population will antagonise the
                         Malthusians like me and Joseph

                         I know, but I think you are wrong
                         about population growth inevitably
                         leading to increasing misery among
                         the poor. The facts just don't
                         support it.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         It has been an historical fact for

                         May be, but not any more. You
                         underestimate the productive power
                         of free people engaging in trade
                         with each other. This will lead to
                         an explosion in agricultural
                         productivity which will make all of
                         Malthus' predictions false. Just
                         look at what has been happening in
                         America right now. 

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Yes, but that might be the
                         exception. Here the poor and the
                         working class have to be very
                         careful about not having too many
                         children or the Malthusian trap
                         will catch them in its jaws.

                         But you and Garnier also
                         underestimate the ability of people
                         to take action to plan their lives
                         rationally. For goodness' sake,
                         they are not like plants or stupid
                         rabbits just reproducing
                         mindlessly. They are thinking,
                         acting individuals who can plan
                         their lives, if they are left free
                         to do so.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Frederic, you are now the one
                         exaggerating. Most poor people are
                         not like that.

               Hortense interrupts their conversation.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Frederic, I see you have finished
                         your pamphlet on "the seen and the


                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Gustave, you should take a look at
                         this and leave poor old Malthus for

               She hands the manuscript of "What is Seen and What is Not
               Seen" to Gustave who has not seen it before. He begins
               reading it with growing interest.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX (CONT'D)
                            (addressing Frederic)
                         I see you have applied your idea of
                         the unseen to several case studies,
                         even the benefits of cutting the
                         size of the army! I like that. It
                         works well.

                         Thank you. I was worried that it
                         was too long for a popular work and
                         not long enough to be a serious
                         work of theory.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         The opening chapter is very clever.
                         What do you think Gustave?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I think it is the best thing he has
                         ever written! The essence of his
                         entire theory is in that one short
                         chapter, "The Broken Window." But I
                         don't like the title.

                         What do you mean you don't like the

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         "The seen and the unseen" is too
                         poetic, too literary. It hides a
                         deeper theoretical principle which
                         is at work, so it needs a more
                         scientific sounding title.

                         So you think that without a fancy
                         name, the theorists won't take my
                         idea seriously?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Quite likely.

                         What should I call it then?

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I don't know. But what you are
                         saying is that everything we do has
                         a cost, as well as everything we
                         don't do, or choose not to do, for
                         whatever reason.


                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         So it needs a name or a title.
                         Perhaps "Bastiat's Law"?

                         That sounds vain and stupid. I'll
                         leave the title as it is.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Whatever you call it, it is very
                         good Frederic.

               Frederic begins coughing violently and Hortense goes to him
               to comfort him and help him with his medicine.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Gustave, perhaps we should go and
                         let Frederic rest for a while.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Of course. Frederic, I really like
                         the essay. The treatise I'm not so
                         sure about. I'll have to think some
                         more about it.

               Frederic waves them away as he coughs. They both leave.

               A few days later Frederic has another visitor. It is the
               economist Michel Chevalier.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         May I come in?

                         Of course! Do come in my friend.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Gustave told me about your essay on
                         "the seen and the unseen". I wanted
                         to take a look for myself.

                         By all means. Here it is. I'll get
                         us a glass of wine while you read
                         through it.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Thank you.

               He sits down to read.

               Some time passes as they drink and Chevalier reads the essay.
               Eventually he looks and says to Frederic

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D)
                         I want to say that I envy you

                         You envy me? It is I who have
                         envied you. You are the one with
                         the prestigious chair in political
                         economy at the university. I have
                         only ever given a few lectures to a
                         handful of students at the law
                         school. What I would have given for
                         a proper chair!

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         That may be. But I envy your
                         ability to write and you have some
                         very original ideas. You are never
                         dull and dry like I am, like most
                         economists. You could make even a
                         treatise on public works witty and
                         amusing to read.

                         I suppose I could, but I've never
                            (they both laugh)

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Would you be willing to give a
                         guest lecture to my students on

               He lifts up the pamphlet "What is Seen and What is Not Seen".

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D)
                         I want them to hear this.

                         So you have got your chair back
                         safely after all that nonsense last

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Yes, the socialists lost that
                         battle thank goodness.

                         I would like to talk to your
                         students. I like talking to young
                         people. But I'm afraid I cannot
                         talk for very long in one stretch.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         I understand. We can circulate the
                         paper beforehand and you can just
                         speak to it. 

                         That sounds good. Michel, I have
                         something to ask you.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Yes, of course.

                         Do you think we ever had a
                         realistic chance of getting a free
                         trade bill adopted by the Chamber
                         three years ago?

               Chevalier pauses before answering.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         No I don't think we did. The vested
                         interests who controlled the
                         Chamber would never have allowed
                         it. And they didn't. No ruling
                         elite has ever given up its
                         privileges unless they absolutely
                         had to.

                         The English elite were forced to
                         give up their privileges because of
                         pressure from below from the new
                         voting middle class.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Which we didn't have in France
                         then. Now that we do, they are in
                         love with another Napoleon, not
                         with free trade.

                         So where do we go from here?

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Well, in my view the best chance
                         France has for free trade is for it
                         to come from the top down.

                         You mean from our so-called "Prince

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Yes. If we can stop him from
                         starting too many wars!
                            (they both laugh)
                         But that is where I have some
                         skill. I have lots of contacts
                         inside his bureaucracies and I
                         think I can eventually appeal to
                         his vanity and show him what a
                         prestigious thing it would for
                         France to have a free trade treaty
                         with Britain.

                         That is something else I envy about
                         you Michel. Your patience to take
                         the long view and spend time
                         working with these boring

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Yes, it can be boring at times. But
                         I think we will get there one day.

                         When I am gone, you need to talk to
                         Richard Cobden. He is on our side
                         and understands French politics
                         very well. Maybe the two of you can
                         work something out, behind the

               The two men sit looking out the window at the woods and
               continue their conversation for some time.

                                                                CUT TO:


               September 1850. Frederic is in the beautiful and ornate
               lecture theatre at France's most prestigious university, the
               Collge de France. He is speaking to about 50 students who
               are sitting on steeply inclined benches above him. His voice
               is faint and he stops now and again to cough and sip from his
               bottle of laudanum which is resting on the lectern. He has
               been accompanied by Hortense who assists him with his papers. 

                         Gentlemen, you have my paper before
                         you. What does an economist see
                         when someone, anyone, buys
                         something, like a new window to
                         replace a broken one?

               A couple of the students raise their hands. Frederic picks
               one at random.

                                   STUDENT 1
                         He sees money and a window pane
                         changing hands between the seller
                         and the buyer.

                         Yes. What doesn't the economist

               The students look a bit puzzled. Frederic picks another at

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         You in the back row.

                                   STUDENT 2
                         I'm not sure. What do you mean?

                         Think about it. We see the buyer or
                         the seller doing one thing. But
                         what aren't they doing? You on the

               He points to a third student who visibly squirms.

                                   STUDENT 3
                         Um ... They aren't buying or
                         selling something else?

                         Precisely! They are not buying or
                         selling a book to read, or a
                         chicken to eat for dinner.
                         But there is a third alternative
                         you haven't mentioned. What is it?

               There is an embarrassed silence.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Come on, what is it? What else
                         could they be doing with their
                         money? What else could the buyer be

               There is continued silence.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         He could be doing what you are all
                         doing, which is nothing!

               There is an audible groan as the students realise how obvious
               the answer was.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         He could refrain from engaging in
                         any exchange and just keep looking
                         out of his broken window and keep
                         the money in his purse, or he could
                         deposit it in a savings bank. There
                         are so many opportunities for
                         economic actors to do or not do
                         things and each alternative has its
                         own costs and benefits. A good
                         economist must take note of these
                         things. They must go looking for
                         them if they are not obvious at a
                         first glance. They may well be
                         "unseen" to the casual viewer.

               The lecture goes on like this for a while before Chevalier
               sees that Frederic is getting tired and calls the lecture to
               an end.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         M. Bastiat is getting tired. So we
                         will bring this session to an end.
                         Please join me in thanking him for
                         his unique perspective.

               They applaud him and begin leaving the lecture theatre.
               Hortense helps Frederic gather his papers and gives him her
               arm to help him walk. She says to him as they are walking

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         You were born to do this Frederic.

               Frederic nods sadly as they leave. She squeezes his arm.

                                                                CUT TO:

        94     INT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - EVENING                      94

               Late summer 1850. The economists have gathered to celebrate
               the publication of Frederic's latest works which are hot off
               the press, volume 1 of his theoretical treatise Economic
               Harmonies and his booklet on popular economics What is Seen
               and What is Not Seen. Copies are displayed on tables around
               the room. The mood is both happy and sad as they realise his
               health has been rapidly deteriorating over the summer. There
               is quite a hum of noise in the Guillaumin offices as people
               drink and eat hors d'oeuvres.

                         If I may have your attention! 

               The noise subdues.

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         Thank you. We are here this evening
                         to celebrate the publication of
                         Frederic's long awaited book,
                         Economic Harmonies.

               There is a cheer around the room.

                                   GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D)
                         We think it will have a big impact
                         on the profession. Let us raise our
                         glasses to salute Frederic's

                                   EVERYONE IN THE ROOM
                         Here's to Frederic! Bravo Frederic!

                         But that is not all. If working on
                         that was not enough, Frederic also
                         completed over the summer what many
                         of us think is his best work of
                         popular economics - the booklet
                         What is Seen and What is Not Seen.

                                   EVERYONE IN THE ROOM
                         Well done Frederic! Bravo! Etc.

                         We are hoping it will sell like hot
                         cakes so get your copy now while we
                         still have some! I believe Frederic
                         would like to say a few words.

               Everybody turns towards Frederic who is standing off to the
               side of the room with his hand holding the edge of a table
               covered with his books for balance.

                         Thanks to all of you for your help
                         and encouragement over the past few
                         months. I couldn't have done it
                         without you. Thanks to Guillaumin
                         for sticking with me in spite of
                         the delays. He knows only too well
                         how easily I get distracted.

               There is laughter in the room.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         But I made it! Here's to Guillaumin
                         and Felicity!

               He raises his glass and is joined by the others in the room.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Now I have some less happy news. My
                         doctor has instructed me to leave
                         Paris and spend the winter in a
                         sunnier clime.

               There are some sounds of dismay from the group.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         I have decided on Rome. The climate
                         and the architecture should help me
                         convalesce. So I want to say
                         farewell to you all and thank you
                         for putting up with a brash, naive
                         man from the provinces like me who
                         came here just over 5 years ago.
                         You made me feel welcome and
                         tolerated my strange Gascogne ways.

               There is laughter around the room.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         I hope to see you in the spring!
                         Many thanks! Oh, one more thing.
                         I'd be happy to sign copies of my
                         As an economist, I can assure you
                         that it should increase the resale
                         price should ever you want to part
                         with it! Or not, as the case may

               There is more laughter and people resume eating and drinking
               and talking.

               Frederic sees Hortense and goes over to her with a copy of
               Economic Harmonies in his hand.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Here is your copy Hortense.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Thank you Frederic! I knew you
                         would do it. 

                         I wasn't so sure. Without your
                         help, probably not. Thank you.

               Hortense opens the book and sees that it has been inscribed,
               then shuts it.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         When you get back from Rome we will
                         have to get to work finishing
                         volume 2.

               Frederic says nothing but looks sadly at her. He then sits
               down in a chair next to a table with copies of his books and
               begins signing copies as people come up to him to
               congratulate him. Hortense reads the inscription he wrote for
               her and a tear comes to her eyes. It says "TO MY MARIANNE,
               who made it all possible, love Frederic." She looks up to see
               him but he has gone.

                                                                CUT TO:

        95     I/E. BUTARD LODGE - DAY                                 95

               Early Autumn 1850. We see Frederic writing beautifully
               written invitations to a lunch at the Hunting Lodge to his
               young comrades who worked with him on the barricades in June
               1848 - Gustave, Joseph. We see the letters being hand
               delivered by a messenger. 

               On the day we see Gustave and Joseph walking up the path to
               the Lodge with their invitations in hand.

                         I wonder want this is all about.
                         Most unusual.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         We will see in a moment.

               They knock on the door. It is opened by Hortense's maid.

                         Come in gentlemen. M. Bastiat is
                         expecting you in the courtyard.

               As they walk through the Lodge they see that all of
               Frederic's books and papers have been packed up ready to be
               moved. The library is almost empty and we can see another
               maid in the bedroom packing clothes into a travel trunk. They
               walk out into the courtyard where they see a table set for
               lunch and Frederic and Hortense waiting for them.

                         How good to see you Joseph,

               He shakes their hands vigorously.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         I hope you have brought your
                         appetites with you. Hortense has
                         arranged quite a banquet for us.

               They nod to Hortense who tries to hide the fact that she has
               wiped away a tear from her face.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI

                         How nice to see you!

               Hortense nods and then leaves to supervise serving the lunch.

                         Now for some wine. I have some of
                         my special 1839 vintage from my
                         vineyard in Mugron. I have been
                         keeping it for a moment like this.

                         Thank you. That would be excellent.

               Frederic pours them both a glass.

                         Every time I drink this I can taste
                         the Gascogne sunshine.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I can see what you mean!

               There is some more small talk for a while. Some hors
               d'oeuvres are served by the maid and then Hortense announces
               that lunch is about to be served. Frederic seats them. 

                         Gustave would you please sit here.
                         You there Joseph. Hortense, would
                         you sit here.

               Frederic walks around an empty chair and sits at the head of
               the table. Gustave and Joseph look at each other puzzled. He
               suddenly rises to make a toast.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         You must be wondering why I invited
                         you here today. Two years ago we
                         were on the barricades together
                         fighting both the socialists and
                         the French army. We defeated one
                         but not the other. One of us fell.

               He waves his glass towards the empty chair.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         Young Thomas. Here's to young

               Joseph and Gustave also raise their glasses in memory of

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         And to what might have been!

               He looks towards Hortense and their eyes meet.

               He sits down, and they begin eating. As they drink the tone
               becomes more jovial as they reminisce about events two years

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Frederic, do remember the time when
                         you wanted to get permission from
                         the government to start a
                         revolutionary magazine? How absurd
                         was that?
                            (they all laugh)

                         That wasn't absurd. The rule of law
                         should also apply in the middle of
                         a revolution.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         What do you mean Gustave?

                            (a bit embarrassed)
                         Oh, don't tell her.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Please do!

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Well, it was the day after Louis
                         Philippe's government fell in
                         February. The three of us had
                         decided to start a street magazine
                         to hand out to the rioters in the
                         street. Frederic announced that we
                         had to go to the Mayor's office to
                         get permission from the censors so
                         our newspaper could be legal. When
                         we got to the Mayor's office it was
                         in complete chaos. The
                         revolutionaries were looting it
                         from top to bottom. Official papers
                         were everywhere. Only when he saw
                         that did Frederic agree we could go
                         ahead without getting government
                         permission. There was no longer any
                         government to give permission! But
                         Frederic still wanted to be "a law
                         abiding revolutionary"!

               They all laugh, even Frederic. The happy reminiscing
               continues for some time. As they get tipsy Frederic leans
               over to his two comrades and begins to talk in a softer

                         You know, when I first came to
                         Paris I though we could win.

                         What do you mean win?

                         I mean beat the protectionists and

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         Like Cobden did in England?

                         Yes. Just like Cobden. But we blew

                         We didn't blow it! They out
                         manoeuvred us in the Chamber of

                         No. We had the best chance in
                         decades and we blew it.

                         Maybe the time just wasn't right
                         for that particular strategy to

                         What do you mean?

                         Well, perhaps if economic
                         conditions had been better, or if
                         we had been able to win the support
                         of a key political figure ...

                         Perhaps ... Perhaps not. We'll see.

               The conversation continues in a similar vein for a while. The
               maid brings out more wine and pours it out for the guests.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         You know Joseph said something very
                         insightful to me once.

                         What did I say?

                         I'll always remember this. You once
                         said to me that they may have
                         defeated "socialism from below" but
                         the real threat will be a new form
                         of socialism, "socialism from

                         Did I say that?

                         Yes you did! It took me a while to
                         understand what you meant but I did

                         What did I mean?

                         Well, we saw it happening right
                         before our eyes. The socialists in
                         the streets, like our communist
                         friends who shut down our political
                         Club, were defeated by soldiers and
                         artillery in June '48. They got
                         dispersed and might come back
                         eventually. But what if Louis
                         Napoleon and his bureaucrats decide
                         to become socialists ...

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         You mean more socialist than they
                         are already?

                         Yes. Then that is a new and more
                         powerful form of socialism,
                         "socialism from above". And they
                         have the government bureaucracies,
                         and the courts, and the police.
                         That's what worries me the most. We
                         will never get rid of that kind of
                         socialism. Not in my lifetime.
                         Maybe you will have a better chance
                         than I.

               They all become quiet as they think about what Frederic has
               just said. Joseph, Gustave and Hortense begin talking amongst
               themselves. Frederic quietly gets up and moves away to cough
               in private. He has another very SERIOUS COUGHING FIT. A few
               minutes later the three look around to see what has happened.
               Frederic has gone over to the stables, SADDLED HIS HORSE, and
               is mounting it to go for a ride through the woods. It is very
               late in the day and the shadows are getting long.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         What is Frederic doing?

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         He likes to go for a ride when he
                         wants to clear his head.

                                   GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI
                         I'll say thanks for the lovely
                         lunch when he gets back.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         He won't be coming back. This is
                         his way of saying good bye.

                                                                CUT TO:


               October 1850. A carriage has come to take Frederic to the
               railway station so he can begin his long journey to Rome
               where he knows he will die of his throat cancer. His single
               bag is loaded into the carriage. As the carriage pulls away
               from his building he sees some ANTI-NAPOLEON GRAFFITI and a
               poster on the wall. It is a caricature of Louis Napoleon as a
               vulture sitting on a tree branch eating the flesh off the
               body of Marianne, the symbol of France whom he holds in his
               talons. The message states "Beware the New Napoleon, the
               Budget-Eating Vulture of France". Frederic pulls the folded
               print of Delacroix's painting from his coat pocket. Looks at
               it and then at the caricature of Napoleon on the wall. He
               notices THE FACE OF THE DEAD MARIANNE is the same as the one
               in Delacroix's painting. He folds up the Delacroix print and
               puts it carefully back in his coat pocket. 

                                                                CUT TO:


               Frederic is in the carriage of a train. As he looks out the
               window he sees THE OCTROI CUSTOMS GATE AND WALL roll by out
               the window. Then the train passes under THE MILITARY
               FORTIFICATION WALL and then the train is out into the
               countryside. One of the last things he sees is one of the
               HUGE FORTS on the outskirts of Paris with soldiers standing
               on the outer wall looking out observing everything. He thinks
               to himself that he is leaving the concentric circles built by
               the French state to contain the citizens of Paris for the
               last time, and that it is a kind of liberation, at least for

               He looks out the window, smiles ruefully, and begins softly
               singing the Basque folk song "Adios Ene Maitia" (Goodbye, My

                         Goodbye, my love
                         Goodbye forever
                         I have no regrets
                         About you, my love
                         For I left you
                         So free for another

                                                                CUT TO:

        98     INT. HOTEL ROOM IN ROME - DAY                           98

               It is three months later - Christmas Eve 1850. Frederic has
               taken a hotel room in Rome overlooking the Tiber river. He is
               unable to swallow or keep food down. He is CLOSE TO DEATH. A
               doctor has just been in to see him, as he leaves he meets
               Hortense waiting outside.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         May I see him doctor?

                                   DOCTOR IN ROME
                         He does not have much longer to
                         live. Only a few hours. Go in.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Frederic. It is Hortense.

                         Hortense you've come!

                                   MME CHEUVREUX

               She moves a chair closer to the bed and sits with him.

                         Hortense. What about my papers?

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         They are safe. I have given them
                         all to Prosper Paillottet as you
                         asked. I will help him edit them.

                         Has Guillaumin agreed to publish
                         volume 2?

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         Yes. He was reluctant to at first
                         because it wasn't finished. But I
                         said Casimir and I would underwrite
                         the costs. He agreed then.

                         Thank you Hortense. You have been
                         so kind.

               He reaches for her hand and she lets him hold it. A few
               moments of silence go by.

                                   FREDERIC (CONT'D)
                         We had some happy times. At your
                         salon and at the Lodge. I wish
                         there had been more.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         So do I.

               There are some more moments of silence as Frederic breathes
               hard and swallows.

                         Promise me one thing Hortense.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX

                         Destroy our letters.

                                   MME CHEUVREUX
                         There are some which show another
                         side to you Frederic. People should
                         know about that.

               Frederic slowly passes away while Hortense sits with him
               holding his hand. She eventually gets up and looks out the
               window at the Tiber river. She watches the hustle and bustle
               of the commercial river traffic below her. On the window
               ledge she sees a solitary bird pecking for food. A tear runs
               down her cheek.

                                                              FADE OUT.




The Statue for Bastiat in Mugron 1878

[The Statue for Bastiat in Mugron 1878]

                                                               FADE IN.

        99     INT. ROOM IN THE FOREIGN OFFICE IN PARIS                99

               23 January 1860. Emperor Napoleon III has agreed to sign a
               free trade treaty with Britain. Signing on behalf of the
               French government is Frederic's friend and colleague Michel
               Chevalier, on behalf of Britain is Richard Cobden. They are
               in a sumptuous room in the Foreign Office signing the treaty.
               After they have signed the treaty they have a glass of
               champagne to celebrate and they make a toast to the efforts
               of Frederic for making the treaty possible.

                                   RICHARD COBDEN
                         Let us remember the work of our
                         dear departed friend Frédéric who
                         laid the groundwork for this
                         important treaty between our two
                         great nations.

                                   MICHEL CHEVALIER
                         Indeed! To Frédéric!

               They raise their glasses to toast their old friend.

                                                                CUT TO:

       100     EXT. PUBLIC SQUARE IN MUGRON - DAY                     100

               It is 23 April 1878 and a small crowd has gathered around a
               statute in the main square of the town of Mugron for the
               official unveiling. We can see on one side of the square the
               Magistrate's Court where Frederic once worked. The town mayor
               unveils the statue. We hear clapping and Gustave de Molinari
               steps forward to make a brief speech. We can't hear the
               words. Hortense is standing next to him. The camera shows the
               bust of Frederic at the top of a marble plinth. A FULL-SIZED
               BRONZE FIGURE OF "MARIANNE" can be seen writing on a marble
               tablet with her finger the titles of Frederic's books,
               "Economic Sophisms," "Economic Harmonies", and "What is Seen
               and What is Not Seen." Beneath the tablet is a large bronze
               plaque with some writing on it. We can read a quotation from
               one of Frederic's letters to Richard Cobden dated August

                                   FREDERIC (V.O.)
                         "War is a monster, a vulture that
                         is almost as voracious when
                         digesting as it is when eating, for
                         I truly believe that expenditure on
                         arms causes almost as much harm to
                         nations as war itself. As long as
                         disarmament prevents governments
                         from restructuring their finances,
                         lowering their taxes, and
                         satisfying the just hopes of the
                         workers, nations will continue to
                         be in convulsion . . . and God
                         alone knows what the consequences
                         will be."

                                                                CUT TO:

       101     EXT. PUBLIC SQUARE IN MUGRON - DAY                     101

               Time lapse photography shows the weathering of Frederic's
               monument over the next 6 decades. During this period
               Frederic's work is completely forgotten in France and

               In is now 1942 and GERMAN SOLDIERS are stripping all the
               bronze work from buildings, churches, and public statues all
               across France. They are breaking off the bust of Frederic at
               the top of the statue and some are trying with great
               difficulty to pull the figure of Marianne and the plaque off
               the plinth. They eventually succeed and throw Frederic's
               bust, the figure, and the plaque into the back of an army
               truck which drives off.

                                                                CUT TO:

       102     INT. A FOUNDRY IN FRANCE - DAY                         102

               Sometime later we see pieces of bronze being lowered into a
               crucible by a winch to be melted down and made into
               munitions. The plaque with the quotation is lowered first,
               and we see it slowly dissolve into the molten metal. Then the
               figure of Marianne and the bust of Frederic's head are
               lowered into the vat together and we watch as they slowly
               melt and merge into THE POOL OF RED HOT MOLTEN METAL.

                                                                FADE TO


               We cut to 1944 when the printing presses of the American
               newspaper publisher R.C. Hoiles in Santa Ana, California (the
               Santa Ana Register) are printing large numbers of a NEW
               ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDITION of Frederic's Economic Sophisms and
               Economic Harmonies. They are being loaded onto trucks to be
               distributed to bookshops all over the country. Wall posters
               announce the event with a picture of Bastiat and the cover of
               the books which are BRIGHT RED in colour - the same colour
               red as the molten metal in the German foundry. They are being
               sold for $2.50 per volume. 

                                                         FADE TO BLACK.