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The films shown and discussed (with links to my film guides where available):
In this Honours Special Subject we propose to focus on a broad range of films dealing with the themes of occupation by, collaboration with and resistance to the Nazis. Although there is a strong emphasis on France (which reflects the research interests of Katharine and myself and perhaps also the trauma created in French society by the occupation), Germany, Poland and Italy will also be covered. In the mid-semester break we plan to show a number of hard to find and quite lengthy documentaries about the French and Polish experience, along with 3 films by Rossellini on the Italian experience. The aim of the subject is to explore the treatment of the themes of occupation, collaboration and resistance by individual filmmakers and to determine their historical accuracy in the light of recent research.
The bibliography provided in this Subject Guide has been compiled from the computer catalogue of the BSL, other subject guides (such as Problems and Perspectives in Modern European History, German Europe, and Responses to War), the Historical Abstracts and Modern Language Association of America (MLA) CD-ROMs, seminal works in the field of history and film, and Katharine Thornton's 1993 Honours thesis Cinema lectures: aspects of Vichy ideology and French life under the German occupation as seen in French films, 1942-1987, (Adelaide University, 1993). However, it remains a working bibliography only. There is much you can and will find for yourslves. To assist you in your search we will provide you with extracts from the following works which contain much recent research which you should follow up:
Special Issue on "Resistance against the Third Reich", The Journal of Modern History, volume 64, Supplement, December 1992.
Special Issue on "The Invasion and Occupation of France 1940-44: Intellectual and Cultural Responses", ed. Christopher Flood and Richard Goslan, Journal of European Studies, vol. 23, 1993.
Pierre Sorlin, European Cinemas, European Societies, 1939-1990 (London, 1991).
American Historical Review, cinema reviews in each October issue.
Natalie Zemon Davis, "Any Resemblance to Persons Living or Dead: Film and the Challenge of Authenticity," Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 1988, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 269-83.
Joseph Daniel, Guerre et Cinéma: Grandes Illusions et Petits Soldats, 1895-1971 (Paris, 1972).
Robin Buss, The French Through Their Films (London, 1988).
Roger Manvell, Films and the Second World War (London, 1974).
The Historian and Film, ed. Paul Smith (Cambridge, 1976).
Feature Films as History, ed. K.R.M. Short (London, 1981).
Pierre Sorlin, The Film in History: Restaging the Past (1980).
Gordon Craig, Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford University Press, 1980). Ch. XVI "The Nazi Dictatorship: The Instruments of Power," pp. 569-601; XVII "The Nazi Revolution: Economic and Social Developments," pp. 602-37; XVIII "Cultural Decline and Political Resistance," pp. 638-72. XIX "Hitler and Europe: Foreign Policy, 1933-1939," pp. 673-713; XX "Hitler's War, 1939-1945," pp. 714-64.
Nazism, eds. J. Noakes and G. Pridham (Exeter Studies in History, 1983, 1984, 1988).
Karl Dietrich Bracher, The German Dictatorship: The Origins, Structure and Effects of National Socialism (Penguin, 1973).
The Shaping of the Nazi State, ed. Peter Stachura (London: Croom Helm, 1978).
Ian Kershaw, The Nazi Dictatorship (London: Edward Arnold, 1985).
Anatomy of the SS State, ed. Hans Buchheim (New York, 1968).
Joachim Fest, The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership (Penguin).
William Sheridan Allen, The Nazi Seizure of Power: The Experience of a Single German Town (Penguin).
Richard Grunberger, A Social History of the Third Reich (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974).
Richard Bessel, "Living with the Nazis: Some Recent Writing on the Social History of the Third Reich," European History Quarterly, 1984, vol. 14, pp. 211-20.
David Schoenbaum, Hitler's Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany 1933-1939 (New York: Anchor, 1966).
Martin Broszat, The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich.
Martin Loiperdinger and Dasvid Culbert, "Leni Riefenstahl, the SA, and the Nazi party Rally Films, Nuremberg 1933-1934: `Sieg des Glaubens' and `Triumph des Willens'" Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 1988, vol. 8, no.1, pp. 3-38. BSL (M) 791.405H673
R. Wood, 'Fascism/cinema', Cinema Action 18 (Fall 1989), pp.45-50. BSL (M) 791.4305C5742
David Welch, Propaganda and the German Cinema, 1933-1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989).
Nazi Propaganda: The Power and the Limitations, ed. David Welch (London, 1983).
Siegfried Cracauer, From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film (Princeton University Press, 1966).
David Stewart Hull, Film in the Third Reich: A Study of the German Cinema 1933-1945 (Berkeley, 1969).
M.S. Phillips, "The German Film Industry and the New Order," in The Shaping of the Nazi State, ed. P.D. Stachura (London, 1978), pp. 257-81.
M.S. Phillips, "The Nazi Control of the German Film Industry," Journal of European Studies, March 1971, vol. 1, pp. 37-68.
J. Caldwell, 'Triumph of the Will and Listen to Britain: propaganda - militant/non-militant', Literature/Film Quarterly 9:1 (1976), pp.52-3
T. McCormack, 'The 1988 Southern Lecture: the texts of war and the discourse of peace', Canadian Journal of Communication 14:1 (1989), pp.1-16.
Detlev J.K. Peukert, Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition and Racism in Everyday Life (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989). Chaps 6-8, pp. 86-175.
Life in the Third Reich, ed. Richard Bessel (Oxford University Press, 1987).
Ian Kershaw, Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria 1933-1945 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1983).
N. Rich, Hitler's War Aims: Ideology, the Nazi State, and the Course of Expansion, (New York: W.W. Norton, 1973).
Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, trans. Ralph Mannheim (London: Hutchinson, 1972).
Hitler's Secret Book, ed. Telford Taylor (New York, 1961).
Eberhard Jäckel, Hitler's Weltanschauung: A Blueprint for Power, trans. H. Arnold (Middletown, Conn., 1972).
Werner Maser, Hitler's Mein Kampf: An Analysis (London, 1970).
Michael Marrus, The Holocaust in History (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989). Chaps 2, 3, and 4.
Gerald Fleming, Hitler and the Final Solution (Oxford University Press, 1986).
Alexander Dallin, German Rule in Russia, 1941-45: A Study of Occupation Politics (London, 1957).
M.R.D. Foot, Resistance (Paladin, 1979).
S. Hawes and R. White, Resistance in Europe, 1939-1945 (Harmondsworth, 1976).
M. Balfour, Withstanding Hitler (Routledge, 1988).
Rolande Lacourbe, 'Henri-Georges Clouzot', L'Avant-Scene du cinema, 186 (15 April 1977), pp.95-118.
Philippe Pilard, Henri-Georges Clouzot vol. 56 Cinema d'aujourd'hui (Paris, 1969).
Katharine Thornton, Cinema lectures : aspects of Vichy ideology and French life under the German occupation as seen in French films, 1942-1987 , (Adelaide University, 1993). Honours Thesis. BSL Special collections theses 09AR T513.
Dan Yakir, 'Clouzot: The wages of film', Film Comment, 17:6 (November-December 1981), pp.38-39.
Paul Yankowski, "In Defense of Fiction: Resistance, Collaboration and Lacombe, Lucien," Journal of Modern History September 1991, vol. 63, pp. 457-82.
Jacques Sidier, La France de Pétain et son Cinéma (Paris, 1981).
John F. Sweets, "Hold That Pendulum! Redefining Fascism, Collaborationism and Resistance in France," French Historical Studies, Fall 1988, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 731-50.
J.-P. Azema, From Munich to the Liberation, 1938-1944 (Cambridge, 1984).
R.O. Paxton, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order (Columbia University Press, 1972).
B. Gordon, Collaboration in France during World War Two (Cornell University Press, 1980).
Collaboration in France: Politics and Culture during the Nazi Occupation, 1940-44 edited by Gerhard Hirschfeld and Patrick Marsh (New York: Berg, 1989). BSL Main Collection 944.0816 H669c
Kedward, H. R., Occupied France: Collaboration and Resistance, 1940-1944 (B. Blackwell, 1985). BSL Main Collection 944.0816 K25o
Paula Schwartz, "Redefining Resistance: Women's Activism in Wartime France" in Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars, ed. Margaret Randolph Higonnet et al. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).
Morris, Alan, Collaboration and Resistance Reviewed: Writers and the Mode Retro in Post-Gaullist France (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992). BSL Main Collection 940.53163 M875c
John Sweets, Choices in Vichy France: the French under Nazi Occupation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). BSL Main Collection 944.0816 S974c
Camus, Albert, Resistance, Rebellion and Death. BSL Main Collection 844 C21r
Vichy France and the Resistance: Culture & Ideology, edited by Roderick Kedward and Roger Austin (London : Croom Helm, 1985). BSL Main Collection 940.5344 V634
Aragon, Charles d', La resistance sans heroisme (Paris : Seuil, 1977). BSL Main Collection 940.5344 A659r
Atack, Margaret, Literature and the French Resistance: Cultural Politics and Narrative Forms, 1940-1950 (Manchester University Press, 1989). BSL Main Collection 840.9 A862l
Bazin, Andre, French Cinema of the Occupation and Resistance: The Birth of a Critical Esthetic; collected and with an introd. by Francois Truffaut; translated by Stanley Hochman (New York, N.Y: F. Ungar Pub. Co., 1981). BSL Main Collection 791.430944 B363c
Drapac, Vesna, Catholics and the French Resistance 1940-1944 (Adelaide, 1980). BSL Special collections strong room 09AR D765 Thesis (B.A.Hons.) from the Department of History, University of Adelaide
Dank, Milton, The French against the French: Collaboration and Resistance (London: Cassell, 1978). BSL Main Collection 940.5344 D219f
Kedward, H. R., Resistance in Vichy France: A Study of Ideas and Motivation in the Southern Zone, 1940-1942 (Oxford University Press, 1978). BSL Main Collection 940.5344 K25r
Kedward, H. R., In Search of the Maquis: Rural Resistance in Southern France, 1942-1944 (Oxford University Press, 1993). BSL Main Collection 940.5344 K25s
Novick, Peter, "The Resistance versus Vichy: the Purge of Collaborators," in Dallin, Alexander, German Rule in Russia, 1941-1945: a Study of Occupation Policies (2nd ed. London: Macmillan, 1981). BSL Reserve collection 940.53 D14.2
Yves Durand, "1,600,00 Prisonniers de Guerre!" Histoire, 1985, no. 80, pp. 115-119.
Roger Kaplan, "Collaboration par excellence," Commentary, 1982, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 72-75.
Étienne Fouilloux, "Les chrétiens, la résistance et la collaboration," Histoire, 1985, no. 80, pp. 101-104.
Pascal Ory, "Sept hauts lieux de la collaboration," Histoire, 1985, no. 80, pp. 80-81.
Henry Rousso, "Collaborer," Histoire, 1985, no. 80, pp. 48-61.
Douglas Johnson, "A Question of Guilt: Pierre Laval and the Vichy Régime," History Today, 1988, no. 88, pp. 11-17.
J.F.V. Keiger, "The Fall of France," History, 1990, 75 (245), pp. 422-424.
Denis Peschanski, "Contoler ou encadrer? Information et propagande sous Vichy," Vingtieme Siécle, 1990, no. 28, pp. 65-75.
Paul Webster, Pétain's Crime: The Full Story of French Collaboration in the Holocaust (Chicago: Dee, 1991).
Marc Sadoun, "Les socialistes ont-ils être résistants?" Histoire, 1983, no. 55, pp. 6-17.
Jean-Pierre Azéma, "Résister," Histoire, 1985, no. 80, pp. 8-24.
Renée Bédarida, "Lyon, capitale de la résistance," Histoire, 1985, no. 80, pp. 30-33.
Andr é Kaspi, "Les juifs dans la résistance," Histoire, 1985, no. 80, pp. 38-45.
Margarete L. Rossiter, "Le rôle des femmes dans la résistance en France," Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, 1989, 39 (155), pp. 53-62.
Alan Clinton, "The Resistance in the Pantheon," History Today, 1993, 43, pp. 10-12.
Betty Jean Lifton, The King of Children (London: Pan Books, 1989)..
Janusz Korczak, Ghetto Diary, trans. Jerzy Bachrach and Barabar Krzywicka (New York: Holocaust Library, 1978)..
Janusz Korczak, The Warsaw Ghetto Memoirs of Janusz Korczak, trans. E.P. Kulawiec (Washington, D.C.: The University Press of America, 1978)..
The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow, eds. Raul Hilberg et al. (New York, 1979).
J.T. Gross, Polish Society under German Occupation (Princeton University Press, 1979).
Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War against the Jews, 1933-45 (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987).
A Holocaust Reader, ed. Lucy S. Dawidowicz (New York: Behrman House, 1976). "Part One: The Final Solution," pp. 25-140.
Documents of Destruction: Germany and Jewry 1933-1945, ed. Raul Hilberg (Chicago, 1971).
Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (Chicago, 1967).
Eugeniusz Duraczynski, "La pologne clandestine face a la réstistance euorpéenne. Remarques, polémiques, rappels," Acta Poloniae Historica, 1983, no. 47, pp. 129-49.
Stanislawa Leandowska, "The Authentication Activities of the Polish Resistance Movement During the Second World War," Acta Poloniae Historica, 1984, no. 49, pp. 181-218.
Tomasz Szarota, "La vie culturelle en Pologne pendant l'occupation allemande," Acta Poloniae Historica, 1987, no. 55, pp. 159-202.
Peter Brunette, Roberto Rossellini (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
The War Trilogy of Roberto Rossellini (New York: Grossman, 1973). The filmscripts of Rossellini's three part work on the Second World War: Rome: Open City (1945), Paisan (1946), and Germany, Year Zero (1947).
J-P. Fargier, 'Rome ville ouverte', Cahiers du cinema 410 (Jul/Aug 1988), pp.17-8 BSL (M) 792.9305C132
T Mitchell, 'The construction and reception of Anna Magnani in Italy and the English-speaking world, 1945-88', Film Criticism 14:1 (1989), pp.2-21
P Bondella, Italian Cinema from Neo-Realism to the Present. BSL (M) 791.430945B711i
M Ciment & G Legrand, Entretien avec Bernardo Bertolucci, Positif 148 (March 1973), pp.29-38. BSL (M) 791.4305P855
D Lopez, 'Novel into Film: Bertolucci's TheConformist' Literature/Film Quarterly 4:4 (1976), pp.303-12
R Zaller 'Bernardo Bertolucci, or nostalgia for the present', Massachussetts Review 16:4 (1975), pp.807-28. BSL (M) 05 M414
Wilhelm, Maria, The Other Italy: Italian Resistance in World War II (New York: Norton, 1988). BSL Main Collection 940.54864 W678o
See the material listed above under "France" and "Poland".
Jessie Pitts, "More Sorrow than Pity," Dissent (Winter 1973), pp. 114-19.
Daniel Yergin, "Politics and Autobiography," Sight and Sound (Winter 173/74), vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 20-22.
Claude Lanzmann, "From the Holocaust to "Holocaust"", Dissent, 1981, 28 (2), pp. 188-94.
Claude Lanzmann, Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust. The Complete Text of the Filn, trans. A Whitelaw and W. Byron (New York: Pantheon, 1985).
Morris Dicksteini, "Shoah and the Machinery of Death," Partisan Review, 1986, 53 (1), pp. 36-42.
Neal Ascherson, "The Shoah Controversy," Soviet Jewish Affairs, 1986, 16 (1), pp. 53-61.
Thomas Doherty, "Representing the Holocaust: Claude Lanzmann's Shoah," Film and History, 1987, 17 (1), pp. 2-8.
Gerhard Botz, "`Shoah': Das undarstellbare und darstellbare in Claude Lanzmanns Film über den Holocaust," Zeitgeschichte, 1987, 14 (6), pp. 259-65.
P Cook, 'The sound track', Films in Review 41 (Nov/Dec 1990), pp.570-77.
The Diary of Anne Frank: The Critical Edition, ed. David Barnouw (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1989).
"The Diary of Anne Frank," Patterns of Prejudice, 1986, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 36-38.
Miep Gies and Leslie Alison Gold, Anne Frank Remembered: The Story of Miep Gies, Who Helped Hide the Frank Family (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987).
Willy Lindwer, Anne Frank: The Last Seven Months (New York: Pantheon, 1991).
Bob Moore, "Occupation, Collaboration and Resistance: Some Recent Publications on the Netherlands during the Second World War," European History Quarterly, 1991, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 109-18.
Hirschfeld, Gerhard, Nazi Rule and Dutch Collaboration : the Netherlands under German Occupation, 1940-1945, translated by Louise Willmot (New York: Berg, 1988). BSL Main Collection 940.5337 H669f
Gerhard Hirschfeld, "Collaboration and Attentism in the Netherlands," Journal of Contemporary History, 1981, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 467-86.
Jong, L. de (Louis de), The Netherlands and Nazi Germany (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1990). BSL Main Collection 940.53492 J79n
Warmbrunn, Werner, The Dutch under German Occupation, 1940-1945 (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1963). BSL Main Collection 949.2 W277
Pieter de Jong, "Responses of the Churches in the Netherlands to the Nazi Occupation" in Human Responses to the Holocaust: Perpetrators and Victims, Bystanders and Resisters, ed. Michael D. Ryan (New York: Edward Mellen Press, 1981), pp. 121-43.
Henry L. Mason, "Testing Human Bonds within Nations: Jews in the Occupied Netherlands," Political Scince Quarterly, 1984, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 315-43.
M.L. Smith, "Neither Resistance nor Collaboration: Historians and the Problem of the Nederlandse Unie," History, 1987, 72 (235), pp. 251-78.
Herbert R. Lottman, The People's Anger: Justice and Revenge in Post-Liberation France (London, 1986).
Henry Rousso, The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944 , trans. Arthur Goldhammer, (Harvard, 1991)..
Colin Nettelbeck, "Getting the Story Right: Narratives of the Second World War in Post-1968 France," in Collaboration in France: Politics and Culture during the Nazi Occupation, 1940-44 edited by Gerhard Hirschfeld and Patrick Marsh (New York: Berg, 1989). BSL Main Collection 944.0816 H669c.
Richard Bosworth, Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990 (London: Routledge, 1993). BSL Main Collection 940.53072 B747e
David Clay Large, "`A Gift to the German Future?': The Anti-Nazi Resistance Movement and West German Rearmament," German Studies Review, 1984, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 499-529.
H.-P. Rouette, Die Widerstandslegende (Free University of Berlin, 1980). Dissertation.
Jean-Pierre Jeancolas, 'D'une Pologne' Positif 361 (March 1991), pp.64-5. BSL (M) 791.4305P855
R Kramer, 'Pouvoir des images' Cahiers du cinema 443-444 (May 1991), p.42. BSL (M) 792.9305C132
J Magny, 'Europa, Europa', Cahiers du cinema 437 (November 1990), pp.85-6. BSL (M) 792.9305C132
C Hall, 'A different drummer: The Tin Drum film and novel', Literature/Film Quarterly 18:4 (1990), pp.236-44.
Günter Grass, The Tin Drum, trans. Ralph Mannheim (New York: Random House, 1964).
Günter Grass, Speak Out! Speeches, Open Letters, Commentaries, trans. Ralph Mannheim (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1969).
Günter Grass, On Writing and Politics 1967-1983, trans. Ralph Mannheim (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1985).
John Reddick, The "Danzig Trilogy" of Günter Grass: A Study of the Tin Drum, Cat and Mouse, the Dog Years (London: Secker and Warburg, 1975).
Critical Essays on Günter Grass, ed. Patrick O'Neil (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1987).
Michael Hollington, Günter Grass: The Writer in Pluralist Society (London: Marion Boyars, 1980).
Keith Miles, Günter Grass (London: Vision, 1975).
Andrée-Jeanne Baudrier, "Aspects du fascisme hitlérien dans deux romans allemands contemporains: Die Blechtrommel de Günter Grass et Kindheitsmuster de Christa Wolf," in Récit et histoire, ed. J. Bessière (Presses Universitaires de France, 1984).
Carl Tighe, "The Tin Drum in Poland," Journal of European Studies, March 1989, vol. 19, pp. 3-20.
R.B. Gill, "Bargaining in Good Faith: The Laughter of Vonnegut, Grass, and Kundera," Critique (Atlanta, GA), Winter 1984, vol. 25, pp. 77-91.
Contending With Hitler: Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich, ed. David Clay Large (Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Robert Weldon Whalen, Assassinating Hitler: Ethics and Resistance in Nazi Germany (Selingsgrove, PA.: Susquehanna University Press, 1993).
Peter Hoffmann, The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945, trans. Richard Barry (3rd edition London: MacDonald and Jane's, 1977).
Anglo-German Group of Historians, Das `andere Deutschland` im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Emigration und Widerstand in internat. Perspektive = The `other Germany` in the Second World War: Emigration and Resistance in International Perspective, ed. Lothar Kettenacker (Stuttgart: Klett, 1977). BSL Main Collection 320.943 A543
Between Reform, Reaction, and Resistance: Studies in the History of German Conservatism from 1789 to 1945, edited by Larry Eugene Jones and James Retallack (Providence: Berg, 1993). BSL Main Collection 320.943 J77b
Germans against Nazism: Nonconformity, Opposition, and Resistance in the Third Reich: Essays in Honour of Peter Hoffmann, edited by Francis R. Nicosia and Lawrence D. Stokes (New York: Berg, 1990). BSL Main Collection 943.0086 N661g
Paucker, Arnold, Jewish Resistance in Germany: the Facts and Problems, trans. Louise Willmot (Berlin: Gedenkstatte Deutscher Widerstand, 1991). BSL Main Collection 943.004924 P323j
Roon, Ger van, German Resistance to Hitler : Count von Moltke and the Kreisau Circle, trans. Peter Ludlow (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1971). BSL Main Collection 323.2 R777
Scholl, Inge, Students against Tyranny: The Resistance of the White Rose, Munich, 1942-1943, trans. Arthur R. Schultz (Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press, 1970). BSL Main Collection 943.086 S368s
Von Klemperer, Klemens, German Resistance against Hitler: the Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993). BSL Main Collection 943.086 V947g
Klemens von Klemperer, "Glaube, Religion, Kirche und der deutsche Widerstand gene den Nationalsozialismus," Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 1980, 28 (3), pp. 293-309.
Christof Dipper, "Der deutsche Widerstand und die Juden," Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 1983, 9 (3), pp. 349-80.
Gerd R. Ueberschr, "Gegner des Nationalsozialismus, 1933-1945," Militärgeschichtliche Mitteilungen, 1984, (1), pp. 141-96.
Martin Broszat, "Zur Sozialgeschichte des deutschen Widerstands," Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 1986, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 293-309.
Donald J. Dietrich, "Catholic Resistance in the Third Reich," Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 1988, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 171-86.
Peter Hoffmann, "Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg in the German Resistance to Hitler: Between East and West," Historical Journal, 1988, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 629-50.
Jane Caplan, "US-GDR Symposium on Terror and Resisatnce in Nazi Germany (Princeton, NJ, 4-6 May 1989), German History, 1989, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 350-56.
Reading to be determined at a later date.
You must answer three (3) questions in three (3) hours. You must answer one (1) question from each of the three (3) sections below.
"Collaboration" and "Resistance" are not polar opposites but merely points on a complex continuum of political positions. Discuss with respect to at least 2 specific examples of collaboration or resistance you have investigated in this subject.
1. "Films, in contrast to written histories, hinder rather than help our understanding of the Nazi period because they oversimplify the complex reasons why individuals collaborated or resisted." Discuss this claim with respect to at least 2 specific examples of collaboration or resistance you have investigated in the films shown in this subject.
2. Discuss the relative importance of ideology and historical accident in predisposing an individual to resist or collaborate. Discuss with respect to at least 2 films shown in this subject.
3. Robert Rosenstone, in an article in the American Historical Review, 1990, vol. 95, no. 4, states:
More important than the screen's mere power to show may be the ability of the fictional historical film to raise questions about how we think and remember the past, and how we retell it to ourselves.
Discuss with respect to at least 2 films shown in this subject.
3. "A major contribution of film in the post-war period has been to challenge the myth of heroic and honourable resistance." Discuss with respect to at least 2 films shown in this subject.
4. In Claude Lanzmann's documentary Shoah, the Czech Jew and survivor of five liquidations of the Auschwitz "special detail", Filip Müller, makes the following remarks about staying alive and bearing witness (pp. 164-5 of film text):
That was happening to my countrymen, and I realised that my life had become meaningless. Why go on living? For what? So I went into the gas chamber with them, resolved to die. With them. Suddenly, some who recognized me came up to me. For my locksmith friends and I had sometimes gone into the family camp. A small group of women approached. They looked at me and said, right there in the gas chamber...
You were inside the gas chamber?
Yes. One of them said: "So you want to die. But that is senseless. Your death won't give us back our lives. That's no way. You must get out of here alive, you mut nbear witness to our suffering, and to the injustice done to us."
1. To what extent (if any) has the participation of women in resistance movements challenged or reinforced ideas about traditional gender roles?
2. How have post-war political concerns influenced the historiography of the Holocaust in Poland?
3. "The use of the image of Joan of Arc by any political group in the 20th century has been plagued by contradiction." Discuss.