The New Guillaumin Library of Classical Liberal
& Radical Thought

A Publishing Proposal III: Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics (1638-1659), 7 volumes

Created: July 15, 2010
Updated: December 19, 2021


A Note on the Collection of Tracts and Pamphlets

This collection of tracts and pamphlets by the Levellers and some of their critics is different from others in a number of areas: its size (over 120 separate items), the strict chronological ordering of the texts, the balance in the authorship (with more titles by Richard Overton and John Lilburne), and the conversion of all facsimile versions of the texts to modern typeface.

Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics (1638-1659), in 7 volumes:

  • Volume 1: 1638-1643
  • Volume 2: 1644-1645
  • Volume 3: 1646
  • Volume 4: 1647Volume 5: 1648Volume 6: 1649
  • Volume 7: 1651-1659

We have arranged the collection of Leveller tracts and pamphlets in chronological order (where this is possible). We have done this is order to highlight the impact that one tract may have had upon others that were published after it in time. In some cases a number of tracts were direct responses, often refutations, of earlier works. Others were triggered by particular historical events and so it might be useful to consult this collection alongside the chronology we plan to add to the “Timeline” section of the Online Library of Liberty website <>.

The balance of authorship of the tracts and pamphlets also played an important role in the selection criteria of the collection. We wanted to have a rough balance between those tracts which were the joint production of several authors designed to express the views of a group such as the soldiers of the New Model Army; those tracts which were clearly the work of a single identifiable author (such as Richard Overton, John Lilburne, or William Walwyn); tracts by supporters of the parliamentary cause (William Prynne), and tracts which were written by critics or luke-warm supporters of the Leveller cause and which prompted often spirited replies from the Leveller leadership.

Many tracts have multiple authors or were written anonymously. The authorship of many tracts is disputed by historians so we have attempted to assign authorship on the best evidence available to us. Where we are certain about the authorship (for example, their name might appear on the title page) the name is given without brackets. When the authorship is disputed or uncertain the name is placed in square brackets. Pamphlets without any known author are described as “Anon.”.

A firm date of publication was sometimes given, but often not. The first date in the table of contents for each volume is the estimated time of publication. Sometimes this has been estimated by the date the work was entered into the 17th century London bookseller George Thomason’s collection which forms the basis for much or our knowledge of the Leveller movement. Sometimes a date is provided in the text itself. The date is followed by the author’s name when it is available; then comes the edition of the tract or pamphlet we have used in this collection. It is sometimes a later or revised edition if the original is no longer available. The order in which the texts are listed in each volume is to place texts with detailed dates at the beginning (e.g. 18 october 1647) and texts with only the year at the end.

Spelling in the mid-17th century was somewhat erratic and we have not attempted to modernize it, preferring to leave it as it was written. We have given the full title of each work as it appears on the title page. Many of the titles are very long and rather florid in their style but they give a good sense of the spirited way in which the pamphlets were written. Information about the publisher, when given, is also idiosyncratic with directions sometimes given to help readers find their way to the bookseller - e.g. “ to be sold at his Shop at the Signe of the Golden Anchor, neere Pauls-Chaine” - or very creative ways of giving the date of publication, such as “ Printed in the yeare the Beast was Wounded 1638”. Where no publisher was given on the title page we indicate this by [n.p.] (no publisher). Occasionally a title with a long name will have become known to modern readers by an abbreviated title, such as [The Petition of September] with the use of square brackets to show that this is an alternate title.

The names of authors and publishers were often deliberately withheld from being published because of the very real fear of arrest and imprisonment. Occasionally a fictitious author’s and publisher’s name would be given to disguise the identity of those involved in publishing the work. Richard Overton even went so far as to openly mock the censors with this amusing fake announcement of the title page: “By Yongue Martin Mar-Priest, Son to old Martin the Metrapolitane. This is Licenced, and printed according to Holy Order, but not Entered into the Stationers Monopole. Europe. Printed by Martin Claw Clergie, Printer to the Reverend Assembly of Divines and are to be should at his Shop in Toleration Street, at the Signe of the Subjects Liberty, right opposite to Persecuting Court. 1645.”

We have not included the famous Putney Debates within the General Council of Officers of October and November 1647 in this collection as these are already online at the Online Library of Liberty along with many other documents. <>. The same is true for the Whitehall Debates within the General Council of Officers of December 1648 and January 1649 which can be found here <>. Additional Information on the Levellers.

The following material on the English Revolution is available at the Online Library of Liberty:

  • The English Revolution topic page: <>.
  • Key Documents of Liberty: 17th Century England <>.
  • Joyce Lee Malcom, The Struggle for Sovereignty: Seventeenth-Century English Political Tracts, 2 vols, ed. Joyce Lee Malcolm (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1999). Accessed from on 2010-04-28.
  • Samuel Rawson Gardiner, The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution, 1625-1660, selected and edited by Samuel Rawson Gardiner (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). Accessed from on 2010-04-28.
  • Arthur Sutherland Pigott Woodhouse, Puritanism and Liberty, being the Army Debates (1647-9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents, selected and edited with an Introduction A.S.P. Woodhouse, foreword by A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951). Accessed from on 2010-04-28.
  • Sir William Clarke, The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, Secretary to the Council of the Army, 1647-1649, and to General Monck and the Commanders of the Army in Scotland, 1651-1660, ed. C.H. Firth (Camden Society, 1901). 4 vols. Accessed from on 2010-04-28.

For additional information about the authors and texts we recommend the following works for their useful introductions, scholarly footnotes, and commentaries. A number of them reproduce the texts in facsimile form so readers can see what the original texts looked like.


Catalogue of the Pamphlets, Books, Newspapers and Manuscripts Relating to the Civil War, the Commonwealth and Restoration, collected by George Thomason, 1640-1661, G.K. Finlayson (London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1908), 2 vols.

The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, Secretary to the Council of the Army, 1647-1649, and to General Monck and the Commanders of the Army in Scotland, 1651-1660, ed. C.H. Firth (Camden Society, 1901). 4 vols.

The English Levellers, ed. Andrew Sharp (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Christopher Hill, The Experience of Defeat: Milton and Some Contemporaries (New York: Penguin, 1985).

Freedom in Arms: A Selection of Leveller Writings, edited and with an Introduction by A.L. Morton. Foreword by Christopher Hill (New York: International Publishers, 1975).

Leveller Manifestoes of the Puritan Revolution, Edited, with an introduction and commentaries by Don M. Wolfe. Foreword by Charles Beard (New York: Humanities Press, 1967). (Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1944).

H.N. Brailsford, The Levellers and the English Revolution, edited and prepared for publication by Christopher Hill (Manchester: Spokeman Books, 1976).

The Leveller Tracts, 1647-1653, edited by William Haller and Godfrey Davies (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1964). (New York: Columbia University Press, 1944).

Marie Gimelfarb-Brack, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, Justice: La vie et l’oeuvre de Richard Overton, Niveleur (Berne: Peter Lang, 1979).

Christopher Hill, Milton and the English Revolution (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979).

Puritanism and Liberty: Being the Army Debates (1647-9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents, selected and edited by A.S.P. Woodhouse. Foreword by A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951).

Tracts on Liberty in the Puritan Revolution 1638-1647, edited, with a Commentary, by William Haller. Volume I. Commentary. Volume II. Facsimiles, Part I. Volume III. Facsimiles, Part II. (New York: Octagon Books, Inc., 1965) (Columbia University Press, 1934).

The Writings of William Walwyn, ed. Jack R. McMichael and Barbara Taft. Foreword by Christopher Hill (Athens: University of georgia Press, 1981).


Jonathan Scott, Algernon Sidney and the English Republic, 1623-1677 (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century, 3 volumes, ed. Richard L. Greaves and Robert Zaller (Brighton, Sussex: The Harvester Press, 1983).

Carl Watner, “‘Come What, Come Will!’ Richard Overton, Libertarian Leveller, “ The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. IV, no. 4 (Fall 1980), pp. 405-432,

Brian Manning, The English People and the English Revolution (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978).

P. Zagorin, A History of Political Thought in the English Revolution (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966).

Christopher Hill, Intellectual Origins of the English Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982).

David Wootton, “Leveller democracy and the Puritan Revolution,” in The Cambridge History of Political Thought, 1450-1700, ed. J.H. Burns with the assistance of Mark Goldie (Cambridge University Press), pp. 412-42.

Joseph Frank, The Levellers: A History of the Writings of Three Seventeenth Century Social Democrats, John Lilburne, Richard Overton, William Walwyn (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1955).

Richard A. Gleissner, “The Levellers and Natural Law: The Putney Debates of 1647,” The Journal of British Studies, vol. 20, no. 1, (Autumn 1980), pp. 74-89.

William Haller, Liberty and Reformation in the Puritan Revolution (New York: Columbia University Press, 1955).

A. Sharp, Political Ideas of the English Civil War 1641-1649 (London: Longman, 1983).

C.B. MacPherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke (Oxford University Press, 1975).

Politics and People in Revolutionary England, ed. C. Jones M. Newitt, and S. Roberts (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986).

Michael B. Levy, “Property and the Levellers: The Case of John Lilburne,” The Western Political Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 1 (March 1983), pp. 116-33.

The Putney Debates of 1647: The Army, the Levellers and the English State, ed. michael Mendle (Cambridge University Press, 2001).

L. Solt, Saints in Arms: Puritanism and Democracy in Cromwell’s Army (Stanford University Press, 1959).

Christopher Hill, Some Intellectual Consequences of the English Revolution (The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980).

Three British Revolutions: 1641, 1688, 1776, ed. J.G.A. Pocock (Princeton University Press, 1980).

Christopher Hill, The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974).


The Printer to the Reader

I Desire thee to amend with thy pen,
one fault escaped in the printing, by negligence,
and the Authors absence,
which is in the 3. page and 10. line,
namely secretaries for sectaries:
And if there be any more faults
(as none liveth without some)
I also desire that thou wilt shew thy patience
by thy silence, and that thou may rather
make a profitable use of the sence,
then anywise strive about words;
even as thou wouldest except the like
favour of me or any other in thy absence,
if thou be one that shewest they selfe
thus carefull and zealous for
the publicke: especially now
in such extreeme need.

[From William Walwyn’s The poore Wise-mans Admonition (10 June, 1647).]


Table of Contents

Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 1: 1638-1643

  1. 12 March 1638 - John Lilburne, The Christian Mans Triall: or, a True Revelation of the first apprehension and severall examinations of John Lilburne, With his Censure in Star-Chamber, and the manner of his cruell whipping through the Streets: whereunto is annexed his Speech in the Pillory, and their gagging of him: Also the severe Order of the Lords made the same day for fettering his hands and feet in yrons, and for keeping his friends and monies from him, which was accordingly executed upon him for a long time together by the Wardens of the Fleet, with a great deale of barbarous cruelty and inhumanity, etc. The second Edition, with an addition. London: Printed for William Larnar, and are to be sold at his Shop at the Signe of the Golden Anchor, neere Pauls-Chaine, 1641).
  2. 1638 - John Lilburne, A Light for the Ignorant or A Treatise shewing, that in the new Testament, is set forth three Kingly States or Governments, that is, the Civill State, the true Ecclesiasticall State, and the false Ecclesiasticall State. Seene and allowed, Printed in the yeare, 1638. [n.p.].
  3. 1638 - John Lilburne, A Worke of the Beast, or A Relation of a most unchristian Censure, Executed upon John Lilburne, (Now prisoner in the fleet) the 18 April 1638. With the heavenly speech uttered by him at the time of his suffering. Very usefull for these times both for the encouragement of the Godly to suffer, And for the terrour and shame of the lords Adversaries. (Printed in the yeare the Beast was Wounded 1638). [n.p.].
  4. September 1641 - [William Walwyn], A New Petition of the Papists. The Humble Petition of the Afflicted Brethren. (Printed in the Yeare 1641). [n.p.].
  5. November 1641 - Robert Greville, Lord Brooke, A Discourse opening the nature of that Episcopacie, which is exercised in England. Wherein, With all Humility, are represented some Considerations tending to the much-desired Peace, and long expected Reformation, of This our Mother Church. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged. (London: Printed by R.C. for Samuel Cartwright, and are to be sold at the signe of the Hand and Bible in Ducke-Lane, 1642).
  6. 2 July 1642 - Henry Parker, Observations upon some of his Majesties late Answers and Expresses. The second Edition corrected from some grosse errors in the Presse. [n.p.].
  7. 12 October, 1642 - John Goodwin, Anti-Cavalierism, or Truth Pleading As well the Necessity, as the Lawfulness of this present War, for the suppressing of that Butcherly brood of Cavaliering Incendiaries, who are now hammering England, to make an Ireland of it: Wherein All the materiall objections against the lawfulness of this undertaking, are fully cleered and answered, And All Men That Either Love God, Themselves, or Good men, exhorted to Contribute all manner of assistance hereunto. (London: Printed by G.B. and R.W. for Henry Overton, At his Shop in Popes-Head-Alley).
  8. 10 November 1642 - [William Walwyn], Some Considerations Tending to the Undeceiving those, whose Judgments are Misinformed. [n.p.].
  9. 15 April 1643 - William Prynne, The Soveraigne Power of Parliaments and Kingdomes, Or, Second part of the treachery and Disloyalty of Papists to their Soveraignes. Wherein the Parliaments and Kingdomes Right and Interest in, and Power over the Militia, Ports, Forts, Navy, Ammunition of the realme, to dispose of them unto Confiding Officers hands, in these times of danger. Their Right and Interest to nominate and Elect all needfull Commanders, to exercise the Militia for the Kingdomes safety, and defence: As likewise, to Recommend and make choise of the Lord Chancellor, Keeper, Treasurer, Privy Seale, Privie Counsellors, Judges, and Sheriffes of the Kingdome, When they see just Cause: Together with the Parliaments late Assertion; That the King hath no absolute Negative Voice in passing publicke Bills of Right and Justice, for the safety, peace, and common benefit of his People, when both Houses deeme them necessary and just: are fully vindicated and confirmed,by pregnant Reasons and variety of Authorities, for the satisfaction of all Malignants, Papists, Royalists, who unjustly Censure the parliament proceedings, Claimes and Declarations, in these Particulars. It is this 28th. day of March, 1643. ordered by the Committee of the House of Commons in Parliament concerning Printing, that this booke intituled, The Soveraigne Power of Parliaments and Kingdomes, be forthwith Printed by Michael Sparke, Senior. Iohn White. Printed at London : by J.D. for Michael Sparke, Senior. 1643.
  10. 19 September 1643 - [William Walwyn], The Power of Love (London: Printed by R.C. for John Sweeting, at the signe of the Angell in Popes-head Alley, 1643).
  11. 7 October 1643 - William Prynne, An Humble Remonstrance against The Tax of Ship-money Lately Imposed: Laying open the Illegality, Injustice, Abuses, and Inconveniences thereof. Written by William Prynne, Esqu. An. 1636. during his imprisonment in the Tower of London, to free his Countrey from that heavy Tax; and then communicated to some speciall friends in Writing. Since that printed without his privity, by an imperfect Copy, An. 1641. so full of Non-sence errors, and mistakes almost in every line, as makes it altogether uselesse, yea ridiculous: but now set out by a true Copy, agreeing with the originall; to right the Author, and promote the publique good. Together with some briefe Observations touching the Great Seale of England. Imprimatur Sept. 1. 1643. John White. London, Printed for Michael Sparke senior, at the signe of the Blew Bible in Greene-Arbour., 1643.


Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 2: 1644-1645

  1. 3 January 1644 - Thomas Goodwin, Philip Nye, Sidrach Simpson, Jeremiah Burroughes, and William Bridge, An Apologetical Narration, humbly submitted to the Honourable House of Parliament. (London: Printed for Robert Dawlman, 1643).
  2. 19 January 1644 - Richard Overton, Mans mortalitie: or, A treatise wherein 'tis proved, both Theologically and Philosophically, that whole Man (as a rationall creature) is a compound wholly mortall, contrary to that common distinction of Soule and Body: and that the present going of the Soule into Heaven or Hell is a meer Fiction: and that at the Resurrection is the beginning of our immortality, and then Actual Condemnation, and Salvation, and not before. With all doubts and Objections Answered, and resolved, both by Scripture and Reason; discovering the multitude of Blasphemies, and Absurdities that arise from the fancie of the Soule. Also divers other Mysteries, as, of Heaven, Hell, Christs humane residence, the extent of the Resurrection, the New Creation, &c. opened, and presented to the tryall of better judgments. By R.O. Amsterdam, Printed by John Canne. Anno Dom. 1644.
  3. 24 March 1644 - Henry Robinson, Liberty of Conscience: Or the Sole means to obtaine Peace and Truth. Not onely reconciling His majesty with His Subjects, but all Christian States and princes to one another, with the freest passage for the Gospel. Very seasonable and necessary in these distracted times, when most men are weary of War, and cannot finde the way to Peace. Printed in the Yeare 1643. [n.p.].
  4. June or July 1644 - [William Walwyn], The Compassionate Samaritane Unbinding The Conscience, and powring Oyle into the wounds which have beene made upon the Separation: recommending their future welfare to the serious thoughts and carefull endeavors of all who love the peace and unity of Commonwealths men, or desire the unanimous prosecution of the Common Enemie, or who follow our Savious rule, to do unto others, what they would have others do unto them. The Second Edition, corrected, and enlarged. Printed in the Yeare 1644. [n.p.].
  5. 29 July 1644 - [William Walwyn], Good Counsell to All those that heartily desire the glory of God, the freedome of the Commonwealth, and the good of all vertuous men. [n.p.].
  6. 2 September 1644 - John Goodwin, Theomachia; Or the Grand Imprudence of men running the hazard of Fighting Against God, In suppressing any Way, Doctrine, or Practice, concerning which they know not certainly whether it be from God or no. Being the substance of two Sermons, Preached in Colemanstreet, upon occasion of the late disaster sustain’d in the West. With some necessary Enlargements thereunto. The second time Imprinted. (London: Printed for Henry Overton, and are to be sold at his Shop entering into Popes-head-Alley out of Lumbard-street. 1644).
  7. 7 January 1645 - John Lilburne, A Copy of a Letter, Written by John Lilburne Lieut. Collonell. To Mr. William Prinne Esq. (Upon the coming out of his last booke, intitled Truth triumphing over Falshood, Antiquity over Novelty) In which he laies down five Propositions, which he desires to discusse with the said Mr. Prinne. [n.p.].
  8. 6 February 1645 - [William Walwyn], A Helpe to the right understanding of a Discourse concerning Independency. Lately published by William Pryn of Lincolnes Inne, Esquire. Printed Anno Dom. 1644. [n.p.].
  9. 8 April 1645 - [Richard Overton], The Araignment of Mr. Persecution. Presented to the Consideration of the House of Commons, and to all the Common People of England. Wherein he is Indicted, Araigned, Convicted, and Condemned of enmity against God, and all Goodness, of Treasons, Rebellion, Bloodshed, etc. and sent to the place of Execution, In the prosecution whereof, the Jesuiticall Designes, and secret Encroachments of his Defendants, Sir Symon Synod and the John of all Sir Johns, Sir John Presbiter, upon the Liberty of the Subject is detected and laid open. By Yongue Martin Mar-Priest, Son to old Martin the Metrapolitane. This is Licenced, and printed according to Holy Order, but not Entered into the Stationers Monopole. Europe. Printed by Martin Claw Clergie, Printer to the Reverend Assembly of Divines and are to be should at his Shop in Toleration Street, at the Signe of the Subjects Liberty, right opposite to Persecuting Court. 1645. [n.p.].
  10. 30 August 1645 - John Lilburne, In the 150 page of the book called, An exact collection of the Parliaments remonstrances, declarations, &c. published by speciall order of the House of Commons, March 24. 1642. We find there a question answered fit for all men to take notice of in these times. [n.p.].
  11. 8 October 1645 - [John Lilburne], Englands Birth-Right Justified Against all Arbitrary Usurpation, whether Regall or Parliamentary, or under what Vizor soever. With divers Queries, Observations and grievances of the People declaring this Parliaments present Proceedings to be directly contrary to those fundamentall Principles, whereby their Actions at first were justifyable against the King, in their present Illegall dealings with those that have sent their best Friends, Advancers and Preservers: And in other things of high concernment to the Freedom of all the Free-born People of England; By a Well-wisher to the just cause for which Lieutenant Col. John Lilburne is unjustly imprisoned in New-gate. [n.p.].
  12. 11 October, 1645 - [William Walwyn], Englands Lamentable Slaverie Proceeding from the Arbitrarie will, severitie, and Injustices of Kings, Negligence, corruption, and unfaithfulnesse of parliaments, Covetousnesse, ambition, and variablenesse of priests, and simplicitie, carelessnesse, and cowardlinesse of People. Which slaverie, with the Remedie may be easily observed. By the scope of a modest & smooth letter, written by a true Lover of his Countrey and a faithful friend to that Worthy Instrument of Englands Freedome, Lieuten. Collonell Lilburn, now unjustly imprisoned in Newgate. Being committed first, by Order and Vote of parliament without cause Shewed, and then secondly for refusing to answer some Interrogatories to their Committee of Examinations, Contrarie to 1. The Great Charter of England. 2. The very words of the Petition of right. 3. The Act made this present parliament; for the abolishing the Star Chamber. 4. The Solemne Protestation of this Kingdom. 5. And to the great Vow and Covenant for uniting the two kingdomes together. [n.p.].
  13. 29 December 1645 - [Richard Overton], The Ordinance for Tythes Dismounted, from all Mosaicall, Evangelicall, and true Magesteriall Right. By this Valliant and most Victorious Champion, the great Anti-Clergy of our Times, via Superlative Holyness, Reverend Young Martin Mar-Priest, sohne to Old Martin the Metropolitane. Commended and Presented to the Petitioners of Hertford-shire, for their further encouragement, and for Provocation of other Counties to become Petitionary with them against the unhallowed illegall Exaction of Tythes. Europe Printed by Martin Claw-Clergy, Printer to the Reverend Assembly of Divines, for Bartholomew Bang-Priest, and are to be sold at his shop in Toleration-street, at the signe of the Subjects Liberty, right opposite to Persecution-Court, 1646.


Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 3: 1646

  1. 29 January 1646 - [William Walwyn], Tolleration Justified, and Persecution Condemn'd. In an Answer or Examination, of the London-ministers Letter Whereof, Many of them are of the Synod, and yet framed this Letter at Sion-Colledge; to be sent among others, to themselves at the Assembly: in behalf of Reformation and Church-government, 2 Corinth. II. vers. 14. 15. And no marvail, for Sathan himself is transformed into an Angell of Light. Therefore it is no great thing, though his Ministers transform themselves, as though they were Ministers of Righteousnesse; whose end shall be according to their works. London, Printed in the Year, 1646. [n.p.].
  2. February 1646 - John Lilburne and Richard Overton, The out-cryes of Oprressed Commons. Directed to all the rationall and understanding men in the Kingdome of England, and Dominion of Wales, (that have not resolved with themselves to be Vassells and Slaves, unto the lusts and wills of Tyrants.) From Lieut. Col. John Lilburne, prerogative prisone in the Tower of London, and Richard Overton, prerogative prisoner, in the infamous Gaole of Newgate. Feb. 1646. [n.p.]. The Second Edition Corrected.
  3. 13 March 1646 - William Walwyn, A Whisper in the Eare of Mr. Thomas Edwards Minister. By William Walwyn marchant. Occasioned by his mentioning of him reproachfully, in his late pernitious booke, justly entitled the Gangraea. London, Printed according to Order, by Thomas Paine, for William Ley, at Pauls-Chaine, 1646.
  4. 19 March 1646 - William Walwyn, A Word More to Mr. Thomas Edwards Minister, by William Walwyn Marchant. Concerning the Nationall Covenant. London, Printed according to order, by Thomas Paine. 1646.
  5. 18 May 1646 - [William Walwyn], A Word in Season: to all sorts of wel minded people in this miserably distracted and distempered nation. Plainly manifesting, that the safety and wel-being of the Common-wealth under God, dependeth on the fidelity, and stedfast adherence of the people, to those whom they have chosen, and on their ready compliance with them. Also, That the destruction and bondage of the Common-wealth in generall, and of every good minded man in particular cannot be avoided, if the people, through want of consideration, shall give eare to any other counsels or counsellers. Published by authority for the publique good., London, Printed by Thomas Paine, dwelling in Red-Crosse-street, in Goldsmiths-Alley, over against the signe of the Sugar-loafe, 1646.
  6. 10 June 1646 - William Walwyn, An Antidote against Master Edwards his old and new Poyson: intended to preserve this long distempered Nation from a most dangerous Relaps. Which his former, his later, and next Gangrenous Book is likely to occasion, if not timely prevented. By William Walwin. London, Printed by Thomas Paine, dwelling in Red-Crosse-street, in Goldsmiths-Alley, over-against the signe of the Sugar-loafe. 1646.
  7. 16 June 1646 - John Lilburne, The Free-mans Freedom Vindicated. Or A true Relation of the cause and manner of Lievt. Col. Iohn Lilburns present imprisonment in Newgate, being thereunto arbitrarily and Illegally committed, by the House of Peeres, Iune 11. 1646. for his delivering in, at their open Barre, under his Hand and Seal, his Protestation, against their incroaching upon the Common Liberties of all the Commons of England, in endeavouring to try him, a Commoner of England, in a criminall cause, contrary to the expresse tenour and forme of the 29. Chap. of the great Charter of England, and for making his legall and iust appeal to his competent, propper and legal Tryers and Judges, the Commons of England, in Parliament assembled. [n.p.]. 1646.
  8. 29 June 1646 - [William Walwyn], The Just Man in Bonds, or, Lieut. Col. John Lilburne close prisoner in Newgate, by order of the House of Lords. [n.p.].
  9. 23 June 1646 - [William Walwyn], A Pearle in a Dounghill. Or Lieu. John Lilburne in New-gate: Committed illegally by the House of Lords, first for refusing (according to his Liberty) to answer Interrogatories, but protesting against them as not being competent Judges, and appealing to the House of Commons. Next committed close prisoner for his just refusing to kneel at the House of Lords Barre. [n.p].
  10. June 1646 - William Larner, A Vindication of every Free-mans libertie against all Arbitrary power and Government, Or, A Letter of William Larner, Prisoner, to Sir Henry Vane junior, a Parliament man: Wherein is set forth his unjust Imprisonment, and cruell hard dealings towards the said William Larner. [n.p.].
  11. 17 July 1646 - [Richard Overton], A Remonstrance of Many Thousand Citizens, and other Free-born People of England, To their owne House of Commons. Occasioned through the Illegall and barbarous Imprisonment of that Famous and Worthy Sufferer for his Countries Freedoms, Lieutenant Col. John Lilburne. Wherein their just Demands in behalfe of themelves and the whole Kingdome, concerning their Publick Safety, Peace and Freedome, is Express’d; calling thoise their Commissioners in Parliament to an Account, how they (since the beginning of their Session, to this present) have discharged their Duties to the Universallity of the People, their Sovereign Lord, from whom their Power and Strength is derived, and by whom (ad bene placitum) it is continued. Printed in the Yeer. 1646. [n.p.].
  12. 1 August 1646 - [Richard Overton], An Alarum to the House of Lords: Against their insolent Usurpation of the Common Liberties, and Rights of this Nation. Manifested by them, in their present Tyrannicall Attempts against that Worthy Commoner, Lieutenant Col. John Lilburne, Defendour of the Faith, And of his Countries Freedoms, both by his Words, Deeds and Sufferings, against all Tyrants in the Kingdome; Whether Black-coats, Papists, Kings, Lords, &c. Printed in the Yeer. 1646. [n.p.].
  13. 4 August 1646 - S. Shepheard, The Famers Fam’d or an Answer, To two Seditious Pamphlets, the one Intituled The Just Man in Bonds, the other A Pearle in a Dunghill, written in behalfe of that notorious Lyar, and Libeller John Lilburne. Also a full reply, with a confutation of a certaine objections devised by the Trayterous Author of a Seditioous and unparraled libel, Intituled A Remonstrance of many Thousand Citizens, and other free borne People of England, to their own House of Commons, etc. Wherein the wickednesse of the Authors, and their Abettors, the destructive course of their Sectaries, and their Adherors is amply discovered. So that all (not wilfully blind) may cleerely see, that they are men stirred up by mass Enemie, the Devill, as to ruine themselves, so this poor Nation, that yet lies Bedrid of her wounds lately received. And ought to be avoided as Serpents, to be contemned as Abjects, and to be delivered over to Satan, as Blasphemers and reprobates... Written by S. Shepheard. London, Printed for John Hardesty, at the Signe of the Black-spread Eagle in Ducke-Lane, 1646.
  14. 11 August 1646 - William Walwyn, A Prediction of Mr. Edwards. His Conversion, and Recantation. (London. Printed by T.P. for G. Whittington and N. Brookes, at the signe of the Angell in Cornhill, below the Exchange. 1646).
  15. 21 August 1646 - [John Lilburne], Liberty Vindicated against Slavery. Shewing, that Imprisonment for Debt, refusing to answer Interrogatories, long imprisonment, though for just causes. Abuse of Prisons, and cruell Extortion of Prison-keepers, are all destructive to the fundamentall Laws and common Freedomes of the people. Published for the use of all the Free-borne of England, whom it equally concernes, by occasion of the House of Lords commitment of Lieut. Col. John Lilburn, close prisoner, first to New-gate, and next to the Tower. By a lover of his Country, and sufferer for the Common Liberty. Printed in the yeare 1646. [n.p.]
  16. 9 September 1646, [Richard Overton], A Defiance against all Arbitrary Usurpations Or Encroachments, either of the House of Lords, or any other, upon the Soveraignty of the Supreme House of Commons, (the High Court of Judicature of the Land) or upon the Rights, Properties and Freedoms of the people in generall. Whereunto is annexed, A Relation of the unjust and barbarous proceedings of the House of Lords, against that worthy Commoner, Mr. Overton, who standeth by them committed to the most contemptuous Goal of Newgate, for refusing to Answer to Interrogatories, and Appealing from that Court to the Honourable House of Commons (as by the great Charter of England he was bound) for the triall of his cause. Howsoever the House of Lords do suggest in their Commitment of him, that it was for his contemptuous words and gesture, refusing to answer unto their Speaker. Which being every mans case, is published b y his friends for the publick benefit of all the Free-born people of England, as it was enclosed in a Letter to one of his friends. Printed in the yeer 1646. [n.p.]
  17. 7 October 1646, [William Walwyn], A Demurre to the Bill for Preventing the Growth and Spreading of Heresie. Humbly presented to the Honourable House of Commons. [n.p.].
  18. 12 October 1646 - Richard Overton, An Arrow against all Tyrants and Tyrany, shot from the prison of New-gate into the Prerogative bowels of the Arbitrary House of Lords, and all other Usurpers and Tyrants whatsoever. Wherein the originall rise, extent, and end of magisteriall power, the naturall and nationall rights, freedomes and properties of mankind are discovered, and undeniably maintained; the late oppressions and encroachments of the Lords over the commons legally (by the fundamental laws and statutes of the realm, as also by a memorable extract out of the records of the Tower of London) condemned; the late Presbyterian ordinance (invented and contrived by the diviners, and by the motion of Mr. Bacon and Mr. Tate read in the House of Commons) examined, refuted, and exploaded, as most inhumaine, tyranicall and barbarous. By Richard Overton Prerogative archer to the arbitrary House of Lords, their prisoner in New-gate, for the just and legal properties rights and freedoms of the commons of England. Sent by way of a letter from him, to Mr Henry Martin, a Member of the House of Commons. Imprimatur rectat justitia. London, Printed at the backside of the Cyclopian Mountains, by Martin Claw-Clergy, printer to the reverend Assembly of Divines, and are to be sould at the signe of the Subjects Liberty, right opposite to persecuting Court. 1646.
  19. 29 October 1646 - William Walwyn, A Parable, or Consultation of Physitians upon Master Edwards. Doctors: Love. Justice. Patience. Truth. Observers: Conscience. Hope. Piety. Superstition. Policie. London, Printed by Thomas Paine, for Giles Calvert, and are to be sold at his shop at the Black spread Eagle, at the west end of Pauls Church. 1646.
  20. October 1646 - John Lilburne, London's Liberty in Chains discovered. And, published by Lieutenant Colonell John Lilburn, prisoner in the Tower of London, Octob. 1646. [n.p.]
  21. 19 November, 1646 - John Lilburne, Vox Plebis, or The Peoples Out-cry Against Oppression, Injustice , and Tyranny. Wherein the Liberty of the Subjects is asserted, Magna Charta briefly but pithily expounded. Lieutenant Colonell Lilburnes Sentenced published and refuted. Committees arraigned, Gaolers condemned, and remedies provided. London printed 1646, in the sitting of Parliament, during which time the presses ought to be free and open, as the Parliament declared to the Bishops at the beginning thereof. [n.p.].
  22. 18 December 1646 - John Lilburne, The Charters of London: or, The second Part of Londons Liberty in Chaines discovered. In which by the ancient, rationall, and fundamentall Charters of the famous City of London, is proved and declared, that it is the true and undeniable right of all and every the Barons, Burgesses, Free-men, or Commoners of London, to have their free vote in chusing out, annually from amongst themselves, a Lord Major, two Sheriffes, and all their Alder-men; which Aldermen are annually to be removed by the Commons of every Ward; and being removed, may not be chosen again for the ensuinge yeare, but others by common consent are to be put into their places. Also it is declared, to be the right of the said Barons or Commons, to chuse the Bridgemasters, Chamberlaiin, Common-Clerk, and Common-Sergeant, etc. of the City of london, and to be removed by them when they please. All which privileges, with many others, they are now rob’d of, by their late incroaching, and usurping, illegall Lord Mayors, & Aldermen, etc. Upto which Charters is annexed, a Discourse, to prove, that though Kings and Parliaments may confirme unto the people their rights, freedoms and liberties; yet it lies not in their poweer to take them from them againe when they please; no, not at all: because all betrusted powers are (as both Kings & Parliaments, & all other Magistrates whatsoever are,) & ought always to be, for the good of the Trusters, and not for their mischief and hurt. In which is also proved, that all Pattentee-Monopolizing-Corporations are against, and destructive to the fundamentall Laws of England; and that it is impossible for justice, peace, or prosperity, to flourish in this kingdom, till they be all abolished. With divers other things worth the knowledg of all the free-men, not only of London, but of all England. For whose good this is published by Lieut. Col: John Lilburn, prisoner in the Tower of London, for the common liberties of the kingdome against the usurpations of the House of Lords. Printed at London. Decemb. 18. 1646. [n.p.].


Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 4: 1647

  1. 6 January 1647 - John Lilburne, Regall Tyrannie discovered: Or, A Discourse, shewing that all lawfull (approbational) instituted power by God amongst men, is by common agreement, and mutual consent. Which power (in the hands of whomsoever) ought alwayes to be exercised for the good, benefit, and welfare of the Trusters, and never ought other wise to be administered: Which, whensoever it is, it is justly resistable and revokeable; It being against the light of Nature and reason, and the end wherefore God endowed Man with understanding, for any sort or generation of men to give so much power into the hands of any man or men whatsoever, as to enable them to destroy them, or to suffer such a kind of power to be excercised over them, by any man or men, that shal assume it unto himself, either by the sword, or any other kind of way. In which is also punctually declared, The Tyrannie of the Kings of England, from the dayes of William the Invader and Robber, and Tyrant, alias the Conqueror, to this present King Charles, Who is plainly proved to be worse, and more tyrannicall then any of his Predecessors, and deserves a more severe punishment from the hands of this present Parliament, then either of the dethroned Kings, Edw.2. or Rich. 2. had from former Parliaments; which they are bound by duty and oath, without equivocation or colusion to inflict upon him, He being the greatest Delinquent in the three Kingdoms, and the head of all the rest. Out of which is drawn a Discourse, occasioned by the Tyrannie and Injustice inflicted by the Lords, upon that stout-faithful-lover of his Country, and constant Sufferer for the Liberties thereof, Lieut. Col. John Lilburn, now prisoner in the Tower. In which these 4. following Positions are punctually handled. 1. That if it were granted that the Lords were a legall jurisdiction, and had a judicative power over the Commons; yet the manner of their dealing with Mr. Lilburn, was, and is illegall and unjust. 2. That the Lords by right are no Judicature at all. 3. That by Law and Right they are no Law makers. 4. That by Law and Right it is not in the power of the king, nor in the power of the House of Commons it selfe, to delegate the legislative power, either to the Lords divided, or conjoyned; no, nor to any other person or persons whatever. Vnto which is annexed a little touch, upon some palbable miscarriages, of some rotten Members of the House of Commons: which House, is the absolute sole lawmaking, and law-binding Interest of England. London, Printed Anno Dom. 1647. [n.p.].
  2. 10 February 1647 - [Richard Overton], The Commoners Complaint: Or, A Dreadful Warning from Newgate, to the Commons of England. Presented To the Honourable Committee for consideration of the Commoners Liberties. Wherein (as in a Glasse) every Free-man of England may clearly behold his own immanent insufferable bondage and slavery under the norman-Prerogative Men of this Kingdom, represented by the present sufferings of Richard Overton; who for his just Vindication of the Commoners Rights and Freedoms against the Arbitrary Domination of the House of Lords, hath by them bin imprisoned these 6 Months in the Goal of Newgate, his wife and brother also by them most unjustly cast into maidenlane prison: And from thence, she (with her tender babe of half a years age in her armes) was, for refusing active subjection to their Arbitrary Orders, dragg’d most barbarously and inhumanely head-long upon the stones through the streets in the dirt and mire (as was her husband formerly (Novemb. 3. 1646) for the said cause) worse then Rebels, Traytors, Thieves, or Murtherers, to the place of execution: And in that most contemptible and villainous manner cast into the most reproachful, infamous Goal of Bride-well: And their 3 small children (as helplesse Orphans bereft of father and Mother, Sister and Brother) exposed to the mercy of the wide world. Whereunto is annexed the repsective Appeales of his wife, and of his brother, unto the High Court of Parliament, the Commons of England assembled at Westminster. Printed Ann Dom. 1646. [n.p.].
  3. March 1647 - [Several Hands but probably a major role by William Walwyn], [also known as “The Petition of March”], To the Right Honourable and Supreme Authority of this Nation, the Commons in Parliament assembled. The humble Petition of many thousands, earnestly desiring the glory of God, the freedome of the Commonwealth, and the peace of all men. [n.p.].
  4. March/April 1647 - William Walwyn, A Still and Soft Voice From the Scriptures Witnessing them to be the Word of God. Printed in the Yeare, 1647. [n.p.].
  5. 30 April 1647 - John Lilburne, The resolved mans Resolution, to maintain with the last drop of his heart blood, his civill Liberties and freedomes, granted unto him by the good, just, and honest declared lawes of England, (his native Country) and never to sit still, so long as he hath a tongue to speake, or a hand to write, til he hath either necessitated his Adversaries, the house of Lords, and their Arbitrary Associates in the house of Commons, either to doe him justice and right, by delivering him from his causelesse and illegall imprisonment, and out unto him, legall and ample reparations, for all his unjust sufferings or else send him to Tyburne: of which he is not afraid, and doubteth not if they doe it, but at and by his death, to doe them (Sampson like) more mischief, then he did them all his life. All which is expressed and declared in the following Epistle, written by Lieut. Coll. John Lilburne, Prerogative Prisoner in the Tower of London, to a true friend of his, a Citizen thereof, Aprill 1647. [n.p.].
  6. 5 June 1647 - Anon., A Solemne Engagement of the Army, under the Command of his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, read, assented unto, and subscribed by all Officers, and Souldiers of the severall Regiments, at the generall Rendezvous neare Newmarket, on the fift of June, 1647.
  7. 14 June 1647 - [Signed by John Rushworth, attributed to Henry Ireton], [Declaration of the Army], A Declaration, or, Representation From his Excellency, Sir Thomas Fairfax, And the Army under his command, Humbly tendred to the parliament, Concerning the iust and Fundamentall Rights and Liberties of themselves and the kingdome. With Some humble Proposals and Desires. June 14, 1647. By the appoyntment of his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, With the Officers and Souldiers of his Army, Signed John Rushworth, Secretary. London, Printed for George Wittington at the Blew Anchor in Corn-hill, neere the Exchange. 1647.
  8. 10 June 1647 - [William Walwyn], The poore Wise-mans Admonition unto All the plaine People of London, and Neighbour-Places. To strengthen them in the houre of temptation, that they may be happy and exemplary instruments to all other People, in preserving the City, Parliament, and whole Nation, from imminent and sudden destruction. Printed in the Yeere 1647.
  9. 14 June 1647 - [William Walwyn], Gold Tried in the Fire, or The burnt Petitions revived. A Preface. [n.p.].
  10. 21 June 1647, [Several hands, calling themselves “Agitators”], A Copie of a Letter Sent From the Agitators of his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax’s Armie, To All the honest Sea-men of England: Heartily and cordially declaring their reall intentions to the peace and prosperity of the Kingdome, and the firme setling and establishing of all the just Interests thereof, into the hands and posessions the right Owners of them. Dated at S. Albans 21. June 1647. Published by the Order and speciall desire of the said Agitators. London: Printed for R.A. 1647.
  11. 17 July 1647 - [Richard Overton], An Appeale from the degenerate Representative Body the Commons of England assembled at Westminster: To the Body Represented, The free people in general of the several Counties, Cities, Townes, Burroughs, and places within this Kingdome of England, and Dominion of Wales. And in especiall, To his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax (Captaine Generall) and to all the Officers and Souldiers under his Command. By Richard Overton, Prisoner in the infamous Goale of Newgate, for the Liberties and Freedomes of England. London, Printed in the yeare, 1647. [n.p.]
  12. 15 October 1647 - [Signed by Several People, but attributed to John Wildman], The Case of the Armie Truly stated, together with the mischiefes and dangers that are imminent, and some sutable remedies, Humbly proposed by the Agents of five Regiments of Horse, to their respective Regiments, and the whole Army. As it was presented by Mr. Edmond Bear, and Mr. William Russell, October 15. 1647. unto his Excellency, Sir Thomas Fairfax. Enclosed in a Letter from the said Agents: Also his Excellencies Honourable Answer thereunto. London: Printed in the Yeare, 1647.
  13. 29 October 1647 - [John Wildman], A Cal to all the Souldiers of the Armie, by the Free People of England. 1. Justifying the Proceedings of the Five Regiments. 2. Manifesting the necessity of the whole Armies joyning with them, in all their faithfull endeavours, both for removing of all Tyranny and oppression, chiefly Tythes and Excise, and establishing the just liberties and peace of this Nation. 3. Discovering (without any respect of persons) the chiefe Authors, contrivers and increasers of all our miseries, especially the new raised hypocrits, by whose treacherous practices, all the just intentions and actions of the Adjutators and other well minded Souldiers, have been made fruitless. Printed in the yeare 1647. [n.p.].
  14. 3 November 1647 - [Several Hands], An Agreement of the People for a firme and present Peace, upon grounds of common-right and freedome; As it was proposed by the Agents of the five Regiments of Horse; and since by the generall approbation of the Army, offered to the joynt concurrence of all the free Commons of England. Printed Anno. Dom. 1647. [n.p.]
  15. 23 November 1647 - [Signed by Several], [The Petition of November], To the supream Authority of England, the Commons in Parliament assembled. The humble Petition of many free-born people. Together with a Copy of the Order of the Commitment of five of the Petitioners, viz. Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Samuel Chidley in the Gate-House. Capt. Taylor, Mr. William Larner, and Mr. Ives in Newgate. As also some Observations upon the said Order. [n.p].
  16. October/November 1647 - [Several Hands], “The Putney Debates”, The General Council of Officers at Putney. These important debates are not included in this collection of tracts. They are available at the Online Library of Liberty website from the book Puritanism and Liberty, being the Army Debates (1647-9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents, selected and edited with an Introduction A.S.P. Woodhouse, foreword by A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951). <>.
  17. 14 December 1647 - [Signed by Several, attributed to John Lilburne], Englands Freedome, Souldiers Rights: Vindicated against all arbitrary unjust Invaders of them, and in particular against those new Tyrants at Windsore, which would destroy both under the pretence of Marshall Law. Or, The just Declaration, Plea and Protestation of William Thompson, a free Commoner of England, unjustly imprisoned at Windsore. Delivered to his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, and that which is called his Councell of Warre, the 14 of December, 1647. Unto which is annexed his Letter to the Generall, wherein the said Plea was inclosed. Also a Petition of the rest of his Fellow-Prisoners to his Excellency. [n.p.].
  18. 30 December 1647 - John Wildman (with William Walwyn), Putney Projects. Or the Old Serpent in a new Forme. Presenting to the view of all the well affected in England, the Serpentine deceit of their pretended friends in the Armie, indeavouring to introduce Tyranny and Slavery in a new method. Composed by the diligent and impartiall observation and certain intelligence of John Lawmind. London, Printed in the yeare. 1647. [n.p.].


Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 5: 1648

  1. 1 January 1648 - William Prynne, A New Magna Charta: Enacted and confirmed By the High and Mighty States, the Remainder of the Lords and Commons, now sitting at Westminster, in Empty Parliament, under the Command and Wardship of Sir Thomas Fairfax, Lievtenant Generall Cromwell, (our present Soveraigne Lord the King, now residing at his Royall Pallace at White-Hall) and Prince Ireton his sonne, and the Army under their Command. Containing the many new, large and ample Liberties, Customes and Franchises, of late freely granted and confirmed to our Soveraigne lord King Charles, his Heires and Successors; the Church and State of England and Ireland, and all the Freemen, and Free-borne People of the same. Printed in the yeere 1648. [n.p.].
  2. 10 January 1648 - William Prynne, The Machavilian Cromwellist and Hypocritical perfidious New Statist Discovering The most detestable Falshood, Dissimulation and Machavilian Practices of L. G. Cromwel and his Confederates, whereby they have a long time abused and cheated both the Houses, City and Country; and the wicked and treasonable things they have done, and unwarrantable means they have used, to carry on their own ambitious Designs. Printed in the year 1648. [n.p.].
  3. 8 January 1648 - William Prynne, The Petition of Right of the Free-holders and Free-men of the Kingdom of England: Humbly presented to the Lords and Commons (their Representatives and Substitutes) from whom they expect a speedy and satisfactory answer, as their undoubted Liberty and Birth-right. Printed in the year, 1648. [n.p.].
  4. 18 January 1648 - [Anon.], [The Petition of 18 January 1648], To the Supream Authority of England, the Commons Assembled in Parliament, The earnest Petititon of many Free-born People of this Nation. [n.p.].
  5. 22 January 1648 - [Anon], The Mournfull Cryes of Many Thousand Poor Tradesmen, who are ready to famish through decay of Trade. Or, The warming Tears of the Oppressed. [n.p.].
  6. 28 January 1648 - John Lilburne, A Defiance to Tyrants. Or The Araignment of Two Illegall Committees. viz. The close Committee of Lords and Commons appointed to examine the London Agents. And the Committee of Plundered Ministers. In two Pleas made by L.C. Lilburne Prerogative Prisoner in the the Tower of London. Wherein is clearely Declared the unjustness, arbitrariness, and absolute unlawfulness of the late proceedings of that close Committee of Lords and Commons against the London Agents. And also, Proving all the proceedings of the Committee of Plundered Ministers in summoning and imprisoning severall Citizens of London, for refusing to pay Tythes, to bee an absolute subversion of the fundamentall Lawes of the Land, and Treason of as high a nature as any the Earle of Strafford lost his head for; They making their Will a Law unto the Kingdome; There being no Law at all in the Kingdome, whereby the London-Priests can claime Tythes, or recover them from any of their Parishoners. London, Printed for the information of all men, that are not willing to be Priests ridden and to the slaves to Tyrannie and oppression, Jan. 1648. [n.p.].
  7. 5 February 1648 - Henry Parker, Of a Free Trade. A discourse Seriously Recommending to our Nation the wonderfull benefits of Trade, especially of a rightly Governed, and Ordered Trade. Setting forth also most clearly, The Relative Nature, Degrees, and Qualifications of Libertie, Which is ever to be inlarged, or restrained according to that Good, which it Relates to, as that is more, or lesse ample. Written by Henry Parker Esquire. London: Printed by Fr: Neile for Robert Bostock, dwelling in Pauls Church-yard, at the Signe of the King's Head, 1648. [n.p.].
  8. 7 February 1648 - Henry Marten, The Parliaments Proceedings justified, in Declining A Personall Treaty with the King, Notwithstanding the Advice of the Scotish Commissioners to that purpose. By Henry Marten Esquire, a Member of the Commons House. London, Printed for John Sweeting at the Angel in Popes-head Alley, 1648.
  9. 14 February 1648 - [author not clear, but signed by John Lilburne, John Wildman, John Davies, Richard Woodward], A Declaration of some Proceedings of Lt. Col. John Lilburn And his Associates: With Some Examination, and Animadversion upon Papers lately Printed, and scattered abroad. One called The earnest Petition of many Free-born People of this Kingdome: Another The mournfull Cries of many thousand poor Trades-men, who are ready to famish for want of Bread, or, The Warning Tears of the Oppressed. Also a Letter sent to Kent. Likewise a true Relation of Mr. Masterson’s Minister of Shoreditch, Signed with his owne hand. Published by Authority, for the undeceiving of those who are misled by these Deceivers, in many places of this Kingdom. (London. Printed for Humphrey Harward, and are to be sold at his Shop, the Crown and Bible at budge-Row-End, near Canning-street. Anno Domini 1648.
  10. 17 February 1648 - John Lilburne, The peoples Prerogative and Priviledges, asserted and vindicated, (against all Tyranny whatsoever.) By Law and Reason. Being A Collection of the Marrow and Soule of Magna Charta, And of all the most principall Statutes made ever since to this present yeare, 1647. For the preservation of the peoples Liberties and properties. With cleare proofs and demonstrations, that now their Lawes and Liberties are nigher Subvertion, then they were when they first began to fight for them, by a present swaying powerfull Faction, amongst the Lords, Commons, and Army, that have already de facto, levelled our Lawes and Liberties to their Arbitrary and Tyrannicall Wills and pleasures, so that perfect Vassalage and Slavery (by force of Armes) in the nature of Turkish janisaries, or the Regiments of the Guards of France, is likely (to perpetuitie) to be setled, if the people doe not speedily look about them, and act vigorusly for the preventing of it. Compiled by Lievt. Col. John Lilburne, prerogative Prisoner in the Tower of London, and published by him for the instruction, information and benefit of all true hearted English-men. London, Printed in the yeare, when some of the mercinary Officers and Souldiers of Sir Thomas Fairfaxes Army, that were pretendedly raised for to fight for the Liberties and Freedomes of England, avowedly drew their Swords at the House of Commons doore, to destroy those that really stood for their Lawes and Liberties, 1647 [i.e. 1648]. [n.p.].
  11. 21 February 1648 - William Prynne, The Levellers Levelled to the very Ground. Wherein this dangerous Seditious Opinion and design of some of them; That it is necessary, decent, and expedient, now to reduce the House of Peeres, and bring down the Lords into the Commons House, to sit and Vote together with them, as one House. And the false absurd, grounds whereon they build this Paradox, are briefly examined, refuted, and laid in the dust. By William Prynne, Esquire. London : Printed by T.B. for Michael Spark, 1647 [i.e. 1648].
  12. 4 April 1646 - John Lilburne, The Prisoners Plea for a Habeas Corpus, Or an Epistle writ by L.C. Joh. Lilburne prerogative prisoner in the Tower of London the 4. of Aprill, to the Honourable Mr. W. Lenthall Speaker of the House of Commons. In which is fully proved, that the Judges are bound by Law and their Oaths to grant a Habeas Corpus to any prisoner whatsoever that craves it, by whomsoever committed, and to deny it (whosoever commands the contrary) is to forsweare themselves, for which they may be in Law indicted for perjury, and upon conviction, are for ever to be discharged of their office, service and councell. In which is also declared the usurpation of Mr. Oliver Crumwell, who hath forcibly usurped unto himselfe the Office of L.G. in the Army, for almost 12. moneths together, and thereby hath robbed the Kingdome of its treasure, under pretence of pay, which he hath no right unto, and by the power of the said Office hath tyrannized over the lives, Liberties, and estates of the freemen of England in a higher manner then ever Stratford or Canterbury did, all which John Lilburne will venture his life according to the Law of the Land to make good, unto which he hath annexed his Epistle which he writ to the Prentices of London the 10th of May 1639 when he was like to be murdered in the Fleet by the Bishops, as now he is like to be murdered in the Tower, by Crumwell and his tirannicall fellow Grandees. [n.p.].
  13. 21 August 1648 - [William Walwyn], The Bloody Project, Or a discovery of the New Designe, in the present War. Being a perfect Narrative of the present proceedings of the severall Grandee Factions, for the prevention of a Just Peace, and promoting of a causelesse Warre, to the destruction of the King, Parliament & People. Whereunto is annexed Several Expedients for a happy Accommodation tending to the satisfaction of all Parties, without the further effusion of blood. (W.P. Gent. Printed in this Yeare of dissembling, 1648).
  14. 11 September 1648 - [Anon. but sometimes attributed to Walwyn, Overton, or Lilburne], [The Petition of 11 September 1648], To the Right Honourable, the Commons of England In Parliament Assembled. The humble Petition of divers wel affected Persons inhabiting the City of London, Westminster, the Borough of Southwark, Hamblets, and places adjacent. Whereunto is annexed, The humble desires of the said Petitioners for the Houses resolution thereon, before they proceed with the personal Treaty. [n.p.].
  15. 11 September 1648 - [Anon. Signed by “A Lover of Peace and Truth”], A Full Answer to the Levellers Petition, Presented to the House of Commons, On Monday Septemb. 11. 1648. Wherein the divellish poyson therein contained, is discussed throughout: By way of confutation of every materiall branch thereof. Contrived for the satisfaction of all those, who are not able to discover the danger of those destructive and abominable Principles therein delivered: And to recall those who are; or shall be misled thereby. By a Lover of Peace and Truth. Printed in the Yeere 1648. [n.p.].
  16. 18 November 1648 - Oliver Cromwell, Oliver, A New Remonstrance and Declaration from the Army, to the Kings Majesty, and the Prince of Wales; and their Message, Proposals, and Protestation, for the conducting of His Majesties Royall person from the Isle of Wight, to His Palace at Westminster, in honour, freedome, and tryumph. With the time of His Majesties comming, the Articles and conditions thereof, and the Armies further proposals to the Citizens of London, concerning his Majesty, and the Presbyterian and Independent party. Sent from the Army Novemb. 18. to be printed and published. [n.p.].
  17. 6 December 1648 - King Charles I, Prince of Wales, Oliver Cromwell, The Kings Majesties Message to His Highnesse the Prince of Wales. Concerning the Lord Generall Fairfax, and the Army; and His Propositions and Desires therein, to be communicated to the Right Honorable the Earl of Warwick, Lord high Admirall of England. Dated from Hurst Castle, the 6. of December, 1648. Also, His Majesties letter to the Parliament, touching the Army, and the confinement of his Royal person to the said Castle; with his desires to the Citizens of London, touching the same. And Lieutenant Gen. Crumwels Declaration in reference to the King, City, and Kingdom. Signed O. Crumwel. Printed for G. Wharton, 1648.
  18. 15 December 1648 - [Anon., sometimes attributed to Lilburne or Overton], Foundations of Freedom, Or An Agreement of the People: Proposed as a Rule for future Government in the Establishment of a firm and lasting Peace. Drawn up by severall wel-affected Persons, and tendered to the consideration of the Generall Councell of the Army. And now offered to the Consideration of all Persons who are at liberty by Printing or otherwise, to give their Reasons, for, or against it. Unto which is annexed severall Grievances by some Persons, offered to be inserted in the said Agreement, but adjudged only necessary to be insisted on, as fit to be removed by the next Representatives. Publish’d for satisfaction of all honest Interests. London, Printed for R. Smithurst, 1648.
  19. 21 December 1648 - [Anon.], No Papist Nor Presbyterian: But the modest Desires and proposalls of Some well-affected and Free-born People: Offered to The Generall Councell of the Armie, for Redresse of Grievances, In order to the late Representative, and Agreement of the People. Quod tibi non vis, alteri ne feceris. Published for generall satisfaction, 1649.
  20. 22 December 1648 - [Lieut. Col. John Jubbes], Several Proposals for Peace & Freedom by an Agreement of the People, Offered unto Commissary General Ireton for the Concurrence of the Army, by the Approbation and Consent of many worthy Persons of the Common Councel And others of the City of London, on the Eleventh of this instant December, To be Agreed unto, and Subscribed by all the Inhabitants of England & Wales. London: Printed for J. Hanes, Decemb. 22. 1648.
  21. December 1648 - January 1649 - [Several Hands], “The Whitehall Debates”, The General Council of Officers at Whitehall. These important debates are not included in this collection of tracts. They are available at the Online Library of Liberty website from the book Puritanism and Liberty, being the Army Debates (1647-9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents, selected and edited with an Introduction A.S.P. Woodhouse, foreword by A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951). <>.
  22. 1648 - [Anon. Signed by “R.KL., a Member of the Army”], A Free Mans Plea for Freedom, Against the Arbitrairie unwarrantable actions and proceedings of the Apostate Associates, commonly called by others, Levellers. Wherein is briefly discussed how unsuitable they walke to common Right and Freedom, being more Arbitrairie and Tyrannicall then any the oppose, wanting only a power to exercise their Crueltie. By. R.L. A Member of the Army. London, Printed for Robert White. 1649.


Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 6: 1649

  1. 19 January 1649 - [Anon.], To the Right Honourable, The Supreme Authority of this Nation, the Commons of England in Parliament assembled. The humble Petition of firm and constant Friends to the Parliament and Common-wealth, Presenters and Promoters of the late Large Petition of September 11. 1648. [n.p.].
  2. 20 January 1649 - John Rushworth, [The Officers’ Agreement], A Petition from His Excellency Thomas Lord Fairfax And the General Councel of Officers of the Army, To the Honourable, the Commons of England in Parliament assembled, Concerning the Draught of An Agreement of the People For a secure and present Peace, by them framed and prepared. Together with the said Agreement presented on Saturday, Jan. 20. And a Declaration of his Excellency and the said General Councel, concerning the same. Tendered to the Consideration of the people. By the Appointment of the Generall Councel of Officers of the Army. Signed John Rushworth, Sec. London, Printed for John Partridge, R. Harford, G. Calvert, and G. Whittington. 1649.
  3. 26 February 1649 - John Lilburne, Englands New Chains Discovered; Or The serious apprehensions of a part of the People, in behalf of the Commonwealth; (being Presenters, Promoters, and Approvers of the Large Petition of September 11. 1648.) Presented to the Supreme Authority of England, the Representatives of the people in Parliament assembled. By Lieut. Col. John Lilburn, and divers other Citizens of London, and Borough of Southwark; February 26. 1648. whereunto his speech delivered at the Bar is annexed. [n.p.].
  4. 12 March 1649 - [William Walwyn], The Vanitie of the present Churches, and Uncertainty of their Preaching, discovered. Wherein The pretended immediate teaching of the Spirit, is denyed, and the all-sufficiency of the Scriptures teaching, is maintained. With, A new and true Method of reading thereof, for the peace of mind, and the rule of life. London, Printed by J. Clows, and are to be sold in Cornhill and Popes-Head-Alley, 1649.
  5. 21 March 1649 - [Signed by Robert Ward, Thomas Watfon, Simon Graunt, George Jellis, William Sawyer (or 5 “Beagles”), but attributed to Richard Overton or John Lilburne], The Hunting of the Foxes from New-Market and Triploe-Heaths to White·Hall, by five small Beagles (late of the Armie.) Or The Drandie-Deceivers Unmasked (that you may know them.) Directed to all the Free-Commons of England, but in especiall, to all that have, and are still engaged in the Military Service of the Common-Wealth. By Robert Ward, Thomas Watson, Simon Graunt, George Jellis, and William Sawyer, late Members of the Army. Printed in a Corner of Freedome, right opposite to the Councel of Warre, Anno Domini, 1649. [n.p.].
  6. 24 March 1649 - [John Lilburne], The Second Part of Englands New-Chaines Discovered: Or a sad Representation of the uncertain and dangerous condition of the Common-Wealth: Directed To the Supreme Authority of England, the Representors of the People in Parliament assembled. By severall wel-affected persons inhabiting the City of London, Westminster, the Borough of Southward, Hamblets, and places adjacent, presenters and approvers of the late large Petition of the Eleventh of September. 1648. All persons who are assenting of this Representation, are desired to subscribe it, and bring in their Subscriptions to the Presenters and Approvers of the foresaid Petition of the 11 of Sept. London, Printed in the Year, 1649. [n.p.].
  7. 4 April, 1649 - John Lilburne, Thomas Prince, Richard Overton, The Picture of the Councel of State, Held forth to the Free people of England by Lieut. John Lilburn, Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Richard Overton, now Prisoners in the Tower of London, Or, A full Narrative of the late Extra-judicial and Military Proceedings against them. Together with the Substance of their several Examinations, Answers and Deportments before them at Darby house, upon the 28. of March last. Printed in the Year, 1649. [n.p.].
  8. 5 April 1649 - [William Walwyn], The English Souldiers Standard to repair to, for Wisdom and Understanding in these doleful backsliding times. To be read by every honest Officer to his Souldiers, and by the Souldiers one to another. [n.p.]
  9. 14 April 1649 - [Signed by John Lilburn, William Walwyn, Thomas Price, Richard Overton, sometimes attributed mainly to Walwyn], A Manifestation from Lieutenant Col. John Lilburn, Mr William Walwyn, Mr Thomas Prince, and Mr Richard Overton, (Now Prisoners in the Tower of London) And others, commonly (though unjustly) styled Levellers. Intended for their Full Vindication from the many aspersions cast upon them, to render them odious to the World, and unserviceable to the Common-wealth. And to satisfie and ascertain all men whereunto all their Motions and Endeavours tend, and what is the ultimate Scope of their Engagement in the Publick Affaires. They also that render evill for good, are Our adversaries: because we follow the thing that good is. Printed in the year of our Lord, 1649. [n.p.]
  10. 23 April 1649 - [John Prince], Walwyns Wiles: Or The manifesters Manifested viz. Lieut. Col. John Lilburn, Mr William Walwyn, Mr Richard Overton, and Mr Tho. Prince. Discovering themselves to be Englands new Chains and Irelands back Friends. Or The hunting of the old Fox with his Cubs and the Picture of the Picturers of the Councel of State. Declaring the subtle and crafty Wiles of the Atheisticall Blasphemous, foul-murthering principles, and practises of Mr William Walwyn, in plentifull instances, confirming the same with some advertisements to Lieu. Col. John Lilburn, and Mr Tho. Prince. By a Lover of the Present, and Eternall, interest of Man-kinde. The Second Edition, Corrected and amended. April 23. 1649. Imprimatur, Henry Whalley. London, Printed for H.C. and L.L. 1649.
  11. 1 May 1649 - John Lilburne, William Walwyn, Thomas Prince, Richard Overton, An Agreement of the Free People of England. Tendered as a Peace-Offering to this distressed Nation. By Lieutenant Colonel John Lilburne, Master William Walwyn, Master Thomas Prince, and Master Richard Overton, Prisoners in the Tower of London, May the 1. 1649. London, Printed for Gyles Calvert at the blaclkspread-Eagle at the West end of Pauls, 1649.
  12. 4 May 1649 - Robert Lockier, John Lilburne, and Richard Overton, The Army's Martyr, Or, A more ful Relation of the barbarous and illegall proceedings of the Court-Martiall at White-Hall Upon Mr. Robert Lockier: Who was shot to death in Paul's Church-yard upon the 27 day of April, 1649. And a brief Narrative of the Cause thereof. With his Christian carriage and deportment, and his dying Speeches to all his fellow-souldiers at the time of his Execution, as an everlasting witnesse of his integrity to the Rights and Freedoms of the Common-Wealth. With a Petition Of divers well-affected persons, and a Letter of Lieut. Col. Jo. Lilburne, and M. Ri. Overton, Presented to the General in his behalf. Printed at London in the Yeer 1649. [n.p.].
  13. 14 May 1649 - Oliver Cromwell, The Declaration of Lieutenant Generall Crumwel Concerning the Levellers; and His Letter and Representation to the Agitators of the respective Regiments who have deserted and declared against the Parliament, the Councell of State, and the late proceedings of the High Court of Justice. With the Declaration, Resolution, and Proposals of the said Levellers, presented to the view of the World, intimating the Grounds and Reasons of their Engagement, and to die as one man with their swords in their hands, rather then to be inslaved. Also, Two Fights between the Levellers and the parliamenteers, neer Worcester and Banbury, the particulars thereof, and the number killed; with the Levellers Summons to the City of Coventry. Imprinted at London, for G.H., May 14. 1649.
  14. 28 May 1649 - [Humphrey Brooke], The Charity of Church-men: or, A Vindication of Mr William Walwyn Merchant, from the aspersions plentifully cast upon him in a Pamphlet, Intituled, Walwyn’s Wiles. By H.B. Med. a friend to Truth, his Country and Mr Walwyn. London, Printed by H. Hils, and are to be sold by W. Larnar, at the sign of the Blackmore, near Bishops-gate. 1669.
  15. 30 May 1649 - William Walwyn, The Fountain of Slaunder Discovered. By William Walwyn, Merchant. With some passages concerning his present Imprisonment in the Tower of London. Published for satisfaction of Friends and Enemies. London, Printed by H. Hils, and are to be sold by W. Larnar, at the sign of the Blackmore, near Bishops-gate. 1649]
  16. 8 June 1649 - John Lilburne, The Legall Fundamentall Liberties of the People of England Revived, Asserted, and Vindicated. Or, An Epistle written the eighth day of June 1649, by lieut. Colonel John Lilburn (Arbitrary and Aristocratical prisoner in the Tower of London) to Mr. William Lenthall Speaker to the remainder of those few knights, Citizens, and burgesses that Col. Thomas Pride at his late purge thought convenient to leave sitting at Westminster (as most fit for his and his Masters designes, to serve their ambitious and tyrannical ends, to destroy the good old Laws, Liberties and Customs of England, the badges of our freedom (as the Declaration against the King, of the 17 of March 1648, pag. 23. calls them) and by force of arms to rob the people of their lives, estates and properties, and subject them to perfect vassalage and slavery, as he cleerly evinceth in his present Case etc. they have done) who (and in truth no other-wise) pretendedly stile themselves (the Conservators of the peace of England, or) the Parliament of England, intrusted and authorised by the consent of all the people thereof, whose Representatives by election (in the Declaration last mentioned, pag. 27. they say) they are; although they are never able to produce one bit of a Law, or any piece of a Commission to prove, that all the people of England, or one quarter, tenth, hundred, or thousand part of them authorised Thomas pride, with his Regiment of Souldiers, to chuse them a Parliament, as indeed he hath de facto done by this pretended mock Parliament: And therefore it cannot properly be called the Nations or Peoples Parliament, but Col Pride’s and his associates, whose really it is; who, although they have beheaded the King for a Tyrant, yet walk in his oppressingest steps, if not worse and higher. John 7.51. Doth our Law judge any man, before it hear him and know what he doth? Acts 24.23. And he commanded a Centurion to keep Paul and to let him have liberty, and that he should forbid none of his acquaintance to minister, or come unto him, (although in ver. 5. he was accused for a most pestilent fellow, and a mover of sedition throughout all the world.) Acts 25.27. For it seemeth to me unreasonable (saith the heathen Judge) to send a prisoner, and not withall to signifie the crimes laid against him. Acts 28. 30. And Paul (in his imprisonment at Rome under the heathen persecutors) dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and received all that came in unto him. London, Printed in the grand yeer of hypocriticall and abominable dissimulation. 1649.
  17. 20 June 1649 - Thomas Prince, The Silken Independents Snare Broken. By Thomas Prince, close Prisoner in the Tower. Turning the mischief intended upon him, in Walwyns Wyles, upon the Seven Independent authors thereof, viz. William Kiffin, David Lordell, John Price, Richard Arnald, Edmund Rosier, Henry Foster, Henry Barnet. London, Printed by H.H. for W.L and are to be sold at the sign of the Blackmore near Bishopgate, 1649.
  18. June/July 1649 - William Walwyn, Walwyns Just Defence Against the Aspersions cast upon him, in A late un-christian Pamphlet entituled, Walwyns Wiles. By William Walwyn, Merchant. London, Printed by H. Hils, for W. Larnar, and are to be sold at the sign of the Blackmore, near Bishops-gate, 1649.
  19. 2 July 1649 - Ricard Overton, Overton's Defyance of the Act of Pardon: Or, The Copy of a Letter to the Citizens usually meeting at the Whale-Bone in Lothbury behinde the Royal Exchange; And others commonly (though unjustly) styled Levellers. Written by Richard Overton Close prisoner in the Tower of London. Imprinted at London 1649. [n.p.].
  20. 16 July 1649 - William Prynne, A Legall Vindication Of the Liberties of England, against Illegall Taxes And pretended Acts of Parliament Lately enforced on the People: Or, Reasons assigned by William Prynne of Swainswick in the County of Sommerset, Esquire, why he can neither in Conscience, Law, nor Prudence submit to the New illegall Tax or Contribution of Ninety Thousand pounds the Month; Lately imposed on the Kingdom, by a pretended Act of some Commons in (or rather out of) Parliament. London, Printed for Robert Hodges, and are to be sold by him. 1649.
  21. 16 July 1649 - Richard Overton, The Baiting of the Great Bull of Bashan. Unfolded and presented to the Affecters and approvers of the petition of the 11. Sept. 1648. Especially to the Citizens of London usually meeting at the Whale-bone in Lothbury behind the Royal Exchange, Commonly (though unjustly) styled Levellers. By Richard Overton Close-prisoner in the Tower of London. Imprinted at London, 1649.
  22. 10 August 1649 - John Lilburne, An Impeachment of High Treason against Oliver Cromwel, and his Son in Law Henry Ireton Esquires, late Members of the late forcibly dissolved House of Commons, presented to publique view; by Lieutenant Colonel Iohn Lilburn close Prisoner in the Tower of London, for his real, true and zealous affections to the Liberties of his native Country. In which following Discourse or Impeachment, he engageth upon his life, either upon the principles of Law (by way of indictment, the only and alone legall way of all tryals in England) or upon the principles of Parliaments ancient proceedings, or upon the principles of reason (by pretence of which alone, they lately took away the Kings life) before a legal Magistracy, when there shal be one again in England (which now is the leasst there is not) to prove the said Oliver Cromwel guilty of the highest Treason that ever was acted in England, and more deserving punishment and death then the 44 Judges hanged for injustice by King Alfred before the Conquest... Imprinted at London, Anno Dom. 1649. [n.p.].
  23. 20 August 1649 - Six Soldiers (John Wood, Robert Everard, Hugh Hurst, Humphrey Marston, William Hutchinson, James Carpe), The Levellers (falsely so called) Vindicated, or the Case of the twelve Troops (which by Treachery in a Treaty) was lately surprised, and defeated at Burford, truly stated, and offered to the Judgment of all unbyasses, and wel-minded People, especially of the Army, their fellow Souldiers, under the Conduct of the Lord Fairfax. By a faithful remnant, late of Col. Scroops, Commissary General Iretons, and Col. Harrisons Regiments, that hath not yet bowed their knee until Baal, whose names (in behalf of themselves, and by the appointment of the rest of their Friends) are hereunto subscribed. [n.p.].
  24. 29 August 1649 - [Signed by several but attributed to John Lilburne], An Outcry of the Youngmen and Apprentices of London: or, An inquisition after the lost fundamentall lawes and liberties of England. Directed (August 29. 1649.) in an epistle to the private souldiery of the Army, especially all those that signed the solemne ingagement at Newmarket-Heath, the fifth of June, 1647. But more especially to the private souldiers of the Generalls Regiment of Horse, that helped to plunder and destroy the honest and true-hearted English-men, trayterously defeated at Burford the 15. of May, 1649. Signed by Charles Collins, Anthony Bristlebolt, William Trabret, Stephen Smith, Edward Waldgrave, Thomas Frisby, Edward Stanley, William White, Nicholas Blowd, John Floyd in the name and behalf of themselves, and the young-men and apprentices of the City of London. Who are cordiall approvers of the paper, called, The agreement of the free people, dated May 1. 1649. and the defeated Burford-mens late vindication, dated the 20. of August, 1649. [n.p.].
  25. 16 November 1649 - John Lilburne, Truths Victory over Tyrants and Tyranny. Being the Tryall of that Worthy Assertor of his Countreys Freedoms, Lieftenant Colonell John Lilburne, Defender of the Ancient and known Laws of England, against Men and Devills, whether in King, Parliament, Army, or Councell of State. Guild-hall London, Octob. 26. Freed in open Court, from his unjust and Illegall Charge of High-Treason, and cruell Imprisonment in the Tower, by the unbyassed and just Verdict of this Jewry, whose Names are here inserted; Miles Pettit, Holburn-Condu. Stephen Iles, Friday-street. Abraham Smith, Smithfield. John King Smithfield. Nicholas Murrin, Gosling-str. Thomas Daintie, Cheapside. Edmund Keysar, Holb-bridge Edward Perkins Smithfield. Ralph Packman, Smithfield. William Cummins, Cheap. Symon Weeden, Bredstr. Henry Tooley, Bredstreet. All good men and true. Printed in the fall of Tyranny. 1649. [n.p.].
  26. 1649 - Gerrard Winstanley et al., The True Levellers Standard Advanced: Or, the State of Community Opened, and Presented to the Sons of Men. by Ferrard Winstanley et al.. Beginning to Plant and Manure the Waste land upon George-Hill, in the Parish of Walton, in the County of Surrey, London. Printed in the Yeer, 1649. [n.p.].
  27. 1649 - Anon., To the Supream authority of this Nation, the Commons assembled in Parliament: The humble Petition of divers wel-affected Women inhabiting the cities of London, Westminster, the borough of Southwark, Hamblets, and places adjacent; (Affecters and Approvers of the late large Petition) of the Eleventh of September, 1648. In behalf of Lieutenant Col. John Lilburn, Mr. William Walwyn, Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Richard Overton, (now Prisoners in the Tower of London) and Captain William Bray, Close-prisoner in Windsor-Castle; and Mr. William Sawyer, Prisoner at White-Hall, Imprinted at London, 1649. [n.p.].


Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 7: 1651-1659

  1. 2 December 1651 - William Walwyn, Juries Justified: or, A word of Correction to Mr. Henry Robinson; For His seven Objections against the Trial of Causes, by Juries of twelve men. By William Walwin. Published by authority. London, Printed by Robert Wood; and are to be sold at his house, near the Flying-Horse in Grubstreet. 1651.
  2. 28 January 1652 - Several Hands, The Onely Right Rule for Regulating the Lawes and Liberties of the People of England. Presented in way of Advise to His Excellency the L. Generall Cromwell, and the rest of the Officers of the Army, January 28. 1652. By divers affectionate persons to Parliament, Army, and Commonwealth, inhabiting the Cities of London, Westminster, borough of Southwark, and places adjacent. Presenters in the behalf of themselves and others, George Baldwin, Simon Turner, Philip Travers, William Tennant, Isaac Gray, Robert Everard. Printed for the subscribers, and are to be sold by William Larnar, at the Black-Moore's Head neer Fleet-bridge, 1652.
  3. March 1652 - John Lilburne, L. Colonel Iohn Lilbvrne His letter to his dearly beloved wife Mrs. Elisabeth Lilbvrne March 1652. Expressing the just reasons and grounds which have inforced him for the preservation of his deare Life & more deare reputation to apologize for himselfe unto the Netherlanders by laying open the true fate of his late Fine & Banishment Eternal from his native countrie. Printed at Amsterdam : by L. I. Anno Domini 1652.
  4. May 1652 - William Walwyn, W Walwyns Conceptions; for a Free Trade. To the Hon. Committee for Forraine Affaires Sitting at Whitehall. [n.p.].
  5. May 1652 - John Lilburne, As you were, Or, The Lord General Cromwel and the Grand Officers of the Armie their Remembrancer Wherein as in a glass they may see the faces of their Soules spotted with Apostacy, Ambitious breach of promise, and hocus-pocus-juggleing with the honest Soldiers and the rest of the Free-people of England. to the end that haveing seene their deformed and fearfull visage, they may be returning to doe their first pretended workes, wipe of their spots, mend their deformities & regaine their lost Credit : in a word, save themselves and the gaspeing Libertyes of the surprized and enslaved English Nation : least enlargement and deliverance arise to the English from another place, but they and their Fathers house shall be destroyed. Ester 4. and 14. All which is contained in a Letter directed to the Lord Generall Cromwel, to be communicated to the Grandees of his Army, written by L. Colonel John Libvrne May 1652 from his Lodging in the pleasant Citty of Refuge seated upon the bankes of the renowned River Rhine, & commonly called by name Vianen. Printed May 1652. [n.p.].
  6. 1 August 1653 - John Lilburne, The Upright Mans Vindication: or, An Epistle writ by John Lilburn Gent. Prisoner in Newgate, August 1. 1653. Unto his Friends and late Neighbors, and Acquaintance at Theobalds in Hartford-shire, and thereabouts in the several Towns adjoyning; Occasioned by Major William Packers calumniating, and groundlesly reproaching the said Mr John Lilburn. [n.p.].
  7. 23 August 1653 - John Lilburne, The Just Defence of John Lilburn, Against Such as charge him with Turbulency of Spirit. [n.p.]
  8. 16 May 1656 - John Lilburne, The Resurrection of John Lilburne, Now a Prisoner in Dover-Castle, Declared And manifested in these following Lines penned by himself, And now at his earnest desire published in print in these words. [n.p.].
  9. 3 March 1658 - William Prynne, Demophilos, or, The Assertor of the Peoples Liberty: Plainly demonstrating by the Principles even of Nature itself, and by the Primitive Constitutions of all Governments since the Creation of the World. That the very Essence and the Fundamental of all Governments and Laws, was meerly the safety of the People, and the Advancement of their Rights and Liberries. To which is added the General Consent of all Parliaments in the Nation, and the Concurrence of threescore and two Kings since first this Island was visible in earnest and by Commerce with other Nations hath been refined from Fable and Neglect. By William Prynne Esq; a Bencher of Lincolns-Inne. London, Printed for Francis Coles in the Old-Baily, 1658.
  10. 16 February 1659 - Anon., The Leveller: Or The Principles & Maxims Concerning Government and Religion, Which are Asserted by those that are commonly called, Levellers. London, Printed, for Thomas Brewster, at the Three Bibles, at the West End of Pauls, 1659.
  11. 27 April 1659 - William Allen, A Faithful Memorial of that Remarkable Meeting of Many Officers of the Army in England, at Windsor Castle, in the year 1648. As also, a Discovery of the Great Goodness of God, in his gracious meeting of them, hearing and answering their suit or supplications, while they were yet speaking to him. All Which is humbly presented, as a precious Patern and President unto the Officers and Souldiers of the said Army (or elsewhere) who are or shall be found in the like path, of following the Lord in this evil day; searching and trying their waies, in order to a through Return and Reformation. By William Allen, late Adjutant-General of the Army in Ireland. London, Printed for Livewel Chapman, at the Crown in Popes-head Alley, 1659.
  12. 6 June 1659 - Edward Sexby [William Allen, Silius Titus], Killing, No Murder: with some Additions Briefly Discourst in Three Questions, Fit for Publick View; to deter and prevent Single Persons, and Councils from Usurping Supream Power. London, Printed 1659. [n.p.].