The New Guillaumin Library of Classical Liberal
& Radical Thought
Proposal III: Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics (1638-1659), 7 volumes
Created: July 15, 2010
December 19, 2021
A Note on the Collection of Tracts and Pamphlets
This collection of tracts and pamphlets by the Levellers and some of their
critics is different from others in a number of areas: its size (over 120
separate items), the strict chronological ordering of the texts, the balance
in the authorship (with more titles by Richard Overton and John Lilburne),
and the conversion of all facsimile versions of the texts to modern typeface.
Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics (1638-1659), in 7 volumes:
- Volume 1: 1638-1643
- Volume 2: 1644-1645
- Volume 3: 1646
- Volume 4: 1647Volume 5: 1648Volume 6: 1649
- Volume 7: 1651-1659
We have arranged the collection of Leveller tracts and pamphlets in chronological
order (where this is possible). We have done this is order to highlight the
impact that one tract may have had upon others that were published after
it in time. In some cases a number of tracts were direct responses, often
refutations, of earlier works. Others were triggered by particular historical
events and so it might be useful to consult this collection alongside the
chronology we plan to add to the “Timeline” section of the Online Library
of Liberty website <http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=58&Itemid=273>.
The balance of authorship of the tracts and pamphlets also played an important
role in the selection criteria of the collection. We wanted to have a rough
balance between those tracts which were the joint production of several authors
designed to express the views of a group such as the soldiers of the New
Model Army; those tracts which were clearly the work of a single identifiable
author (such as Richard Overton, John Lilburne, or William Walwyn); tracts
by supporters of the parliamentary cause (William Prynne), and tracts which
were written by critics or luke-warm supporters of the Leveller cause and
which prompted often spirited replies from the Leveller leadership.
Many tracts have multiple authors or were written anonymously. The authorship
of many tracts is disputed by historians so we have attempted to assign authorship
on the best evidence available to us. Where we are certain about the authorship
(for example, their name might appear on the title page) the name is given
without brackets. When the authorship is disputed or uncertain the name is
placed in square brackets. Pamphlets without any known author are described
A firm date of publication was sometimes given, but often not. The first
date in the table of contents for each volume is the estimated time of publication.
Sometimes this has been estimated by the date the work was entered into the
17th century London bookseller George Thomason’s collection which forms the
basis for much or our knowledge of the Leveller movement. Sometimes a date
is provided in the text itself. The date is followed by the author’s name
when it is available; then comes the edition of the tract or pamphlet we
have used in this collection. It is sometimes a later or revised edition
if the original is no longer available. The order in which the texts are
listed in each volume is to place texts with detailed dates at the beginning
(e.g. 18 october 1647) and texts with only the year at the end.
Spelling in the mid-17th century was somewhat erratic and we have not attempted
to modernize it, preferring to leave it as it was written. We have given
the full title of each work as it appears on the title page. Many of the
titles are very long and rather florid in their style but they give a good
sense of the spirited way in which the pamphlets were written. Information
about the publisher, when given, is also idiosyncratic with directions sometimes
given to help readers find their way to the bookseller - e.g. “ to be sold
at his Shop at the Signe of the Golden Anchor, neere Pauls-Chaine” - or very
creative ways of giving the date of publication, such as “ Printed in the
yeare the Beast was Wounded 1638”. Where no publisher was given on the title
page we indicate this by [n.p.] (no publisher). Occasionally a title with
a long name will have become known to modern readers by an abbreviated title,
such as [The Petition of September] with the use of square brackets to show
that this is an alternate title.
The names of authors and publishers were often deliberately withheld from
being published because of the very real fear of arrest and imprisonment.
Occasionally a fictitious author’s and publisher’s name would be given to
disguise the identity of those involved in publishing the work. Richard Overton
even went so far as to openly mock the censors with this amusing fake announcement
of the title page: “By Yongue Martin Mar-Priest, Son to old Martin the Metrapolitane.
This is Licenced, and printed according to Holy Order, but not Entered into
the Stationers Monopole. Europe. Printed by Martin Claw Clergie, Printer
to the Reverend Assembly of Divines and are to be should at his Shop in Toleration
Street, at the Signe of the Subjects Liberty, right opposite to Persecuting
We have not included the famous Putney Debates within the General Council
of Officers of October and November 1647 in this collection as these are
already online at the Online Library of Liberty along with many other documents. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/2183>.
The same is true for the Whitehall Debates within the General Council of
Officers of December 1648 and January 1649 which can be found here <http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/2183/201033>.Additional
Information on the Levellers.
The following material on the English Revolution is available at the Online
Library of Liberty:
- The English Revolution topic page: <http://oll.libertyfund.org/collection/68>.
- Key Documents of Liberty: 17th Century England <http://oll.libertyfund.org/readinglists/view/376-key_documents_of_liberty_th_century_england>.
- Joyce Lee Malcom, The Struggle for Sovereignty: Seventeenth-Century English
Political Tracts, 2 vols, ed. Joyce Lee Malcolm (Indianapolis: Liberty
Fund, 1999). Accessed from http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/1823 on 2010-04-28.
- Samuel Rawson Gardiner, The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution,
1625-1660, selected and edited by Samuel Rawson Gardiner (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1906). Accessed from http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/1434 on 2010-04-28.
- Arthur Sutherland Pigott Woodhouse, Puritanism and Liberty, being the
Army Debates (1647-9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents,
selected and edited with an Introduction A.S.P. Woodhouse, foreword by
A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951). Accessed from http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/2183
- Sir William Clarke, The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of
William Clarke, Secretary to the Council of the Army, 1647-1649, and to
General Monck and the Commanders of the Army in Scotland, 1651-1660, ed.
C.H. Firth (Camden Society, 1901). 4 vols. Accessed from http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/1983
For additional information about the authors and texts we recommend the
following works for their useful introductions, scholarly footnotes, and
commentaries. A number of them reproduce the texts in facsimile form so readers
can see what the original texts looked like.
Catalogue of the Pamphlets, Books, Newspapers and Manuscripts Relating to
the Civil War, the Commonwealth and Restoration, collected by George Thomason,
1640-1661, G.K. Finlayson (London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1908),
The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, Secretary
to the Council of the Army, 1647-1649, and to General Monck and the Commanders
of the Army in Scotland, 1651-1660, ed. C.H. Firth (Camden Society, 1901).
The English Levellers, ed. Andrew Sharp (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Christopher Hill, The Experience of Defeat: Milton and Some Contemporaries
(New York: Penguin, 1985).
Freedom in Arms: A Selection of Leveller Writings, edited and with an Introduction
by A.L. Morton. Foreword by Christopher Hill (New York: International Publishers,
Leveller Manifestoes of the Puritan Revolution, Edited, with an introduction
and commentaries by Don M. Wolfe. Foreword by Charles Beard (New York: Humanities
Press, 1967). (Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1944).
H.N. Brailsford, The Levellers and the English Revolution, edited and prepared
for publication by Christopher Hill (Manchester: Spokeman Books, 1976).
The Leveller Tracts, 1647-1653, edited by William Haller and Godfrey Davies
(Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1964). (New York: Columbia University Press,
Marie Gimelfarb-Brack, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, Justice: La vie et
l’oeuvre de Richard Overton, Niveleur (Berne: Peter Lang, 1979).
Christopher Hill, Milton and the English Revolution (Harmondsworth: Penguin,
Puritanism and Liberty: Being the Army Debates (1647-9) from the Clarke
Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents, selected and edited by A.S.P. Woodhouse.
Foreword by A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951).
Tracts on Liberty in the Puritan Revolution 1638-1647, edited, with a Commentary,
by William Haller. Volume I. Commentary. Volume II. Facsimiles, Part I. Volume
III. Facsimiles, Part II. (New York: Octagon Books, Inc., 1965) (Columbia
University Press, 1934).
The Writings of William Walwyn, ed. Jack R. McMichael and Barbara Taft.
Foreword by Christopher Hill (Athens: University of georgia Press, 1981).
Jonathan Scott, Algernon Sidney and the English Republic, 1623-1677 (Cambridge
University Press, 2004).
Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century,
3 volumes, ed. Richard L. Greaves and Robert Zaller (Brighton, Sussex: The
Harvester Press, 1983).
Carl Watner, “‘Come What, Come Will!’ Richard Overton, Libertarian Leveller,
“ The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. IV, no. 4 (Fall 1980), pp. 405-432,
Brian Manning, The English People and the English Revolution (Harmondsworth:
P. Zagorin, A History of Political Thought in the English Revolution (London:
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966).
Christopher Hill, Intellectual Origins of the English Revolution (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1982).
David Wootton, “Leveller democracy and the Puritan Revolution,” in The Cambridge
History of Political Thought, 1450-1700, ed. J.H. Burns with the assistance
of Mark Goldie (Cambridge University Press), pp. 412-42.
Joseph Frank, The Levellers: A History of the Writings of Three Seventeenth
Century Social Democrats, John Lilburne, Richard Overton, William Walwyn
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1955).
Richard A. Gleissner, “The Levellers and Natural Law: The Putney Debates
of 1647,” The Journal of British Studies, vol. 20, no. 1, (Autumn 1980),
William Haller, Liberty and Reformation in the Puritan Revolution (New York:
Columbia University Press, 1955).
A. Sharp, Political Ideas of the English Civil War 1641-1649 (London: Longman,
C.B. MacPherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes
to Locke (Oxford University Press, 1975).
Politics and People in Revolutionary England, ed. C. Jones M. Newitt, and
S. Roberts (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986).
Michael B. Levy, “Property and the Levellers: The Case of John Lilburne,”
The Western Political Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 1 (March 1983), pp. 116-33.
The Putney Debates of 1647: The Army, the Levellers and the English State,
ed. michael Mendle (Cambridge University Press, 2001).
L. Solt, Saints in Arms: Puritanism and Democracy in Cromwell’s Army (Stanford
University Press, 1959).
Christopher Hill, Some Intellectual Consequences of the English Revolution
(The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980).
Three British Revolutions: 1641, 1688, 1776, ed. J.G.A. Pocock (Princeton
University Press, 1980).
Christopher Hill, The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the
English Revolution (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974).
The Printer to the Reader
I Desire thee to amend with thy pen,
one fault escaped in the printing, by negligence,
and the Authors absence,
which is in the 3. page and 10. line,
namely secretaries for sectaries:
And if there be any more faults
(as none liveth without some)
I also desire that thou wilt shew thy patience
by thy silence, and that thou may rather
make a profitable use of the sence,
then anywise strive about words;
even as thou wouldest except the like
favour of me or any other in thy absence,
if thou be one that shewest they selfe
thus carefull and zealous for
the publicke: especially now
in such extreeme need.
[From William Walwyn’s The poore Wise-mans Admonition (10 June, 1647).]
Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 1: 1638-1643
- 12 March 1638 - John Lilburne, The Christian Mans Triall: or, a True Revelation
of the first apprehension and severall examinations of John Lilburne, With
his Censure in Star-Chamber, and the manner of his cruell whipping through
the Streets: whereunto is annexed his Speech in the Pillory, and their gagging
of him: Also the severe Order of the Lords made the same day for fettering
his hands and feet in yrons, and for keeping his friends and monies from
him, which was accordingly executed upon him for a long time together by
the Wardens of the Fleet, with a great deale of barbarous cruelty and inhumanity,
etc. The second Edition, with an addition. London: Printed for William Larnar,
and are to be sold at his Shop at the Signe of the Golden Anchor, neere Pauls-Chaine,
- 1638 - John Lilburne, A Light for the Ignorant or A Treatise shewing, that
in the new Testament, is set forth three Kingly States or Governments, that
is, the Civill State, the true Ecclesiasticall State, and the false Ecclesiasticall
State. Seene and allowed, Printed in the yeare, 1638. [n.p.].
- 1638 - John Lilburne, A Worke of the Beast, or A Relation of a most unchristian
Censure, Executed upon John Lilburne, (Now prisoner in the fleet) the 18
April 1638. With the heavenly speech uttered by him at the time of his suffering.
Very usefull for these times both for the encouragement of the Godly to suffer,
And for the terrour and shame of the lords Adversaries. (Printed in the yeare
the Beast was Wounded 1638). [n.p.].
- September 1641 - [William Walwyn], A New Petition of the Papists. The Humble
Petition of the Afflicted Brethren. (Printed in the Yeare 1641). [n.p.].
- November 1641 - Robert Greville, Lord Brooke, A Discourse opening the nature
of that Episcopacie, which is exercised in England. Wherein, With all Humility,
are represented some Considerations tending to the much-desired Peace, and
long expected Reformation, of This our Mother Church. The Second Edition,
Corrected and Enlarged. (London: Printed by R.C. for Samuel Cartwright, and
are to be sold at the signe of the Hand and Bible in Ducke-Lane, 1642).
- 2 July 1642 - Henry Parker, Observations upon some of his Majesties late
Answers and Expresses. The second Edition corrected from some grosse errors
in the Presse. [n.p.].
- 12 October, 1642 - John Goodwin, Anti-Cavalierism, or Truth Pleading As well
the Necessity, as the Lawfulness of this present War, for the suppressing
of that Butcherly brood of Cavaliering Incendiaries, who are now hammering
England, to make an Ireland of it: Wherein All the materiall objections against
the lawfulness of this undertaking, are fully cleered and answered, And All
Men That Either Love God, Themselves, or Good men, exhorted to Contribute
all manner of assistance hereunto. (London: Printed by G.B. and R.W. for
Henry Overton, At his Shop in Popes-Head-Alley).
- 10 November 1642 - [William Walwyn], Some Considerations Tending to the Undeceiving
those, whose Judgments are Misinformed. [n.p.].
- 15 April 1643 - William Prynne, The Soveraigne Power of Parliaments and Kingdomes,
Or, Second part of the treachery and Disloyalty of Papists to their Soveraignes.
Wherein the Parliaments and Kingdomes Right and Interest in, and Power over
the Militia, Ports, Forts, Navy, Ammunition of the realme, to dispose of
them unto Confiding Officers hands, in these times of danger. Their Right
and Interest to nominate and Elect all needfull Commanders, to exercise the
Militia for the Kingdomes safety, and defence: As likewise, to Recommend
and make choise of the Lord Chancellor, Keeper, Treasurer, Privy Seale, Privie
Counsellors, Judges, and Sheriffes of the Kingdome, When they see just Cause:
Together with the Parliaments late Assertion; That the King hath no absolute
Negative Voice in passing publicke Bills of Right and Justice, for the safety,
peace, and common benefit of his People, when both Houses deeme them necessary
and just: are fully vindicated and confirmed,by pregnant Reasons and variety
of Authorities, for the satisfaction of all Malignants, Papists, Royalists,
who unjustly Censure the parliament proceedings, Claimes and Declarations,
in these Particulars. It is this 28th. day of March, 1643. ordered by the
Committee of the House of Commons in Parliament concerning Printing, that
this booke intituled, The Soveraigne Power of Parliaments and Kingdomes,
be forthwith Printed by Michael Sparke, Senior. Iohn White. Printed at London
: by J.D. for Michael Sparke, Senior. 1643.
- 19 September 1643 - [William Walwyn], The Power of Love (London: Printed
by R.C. for John Sweeting, at the signe of the Angell in Popes-head Alley,
- 7 October 1643 - William Prynne, An Humble Remonstrance against The Tax of
Ship-money Lately Imposed: Laying open the Illegality, Injustice, Abuses,
and Inconveniences thereof. Written by William Prynne, Esqu. An. 1636. during
his imprisonment in the Tower of London, to free his Countrey from that heavy
Tax; and then communicated to some speciall friends in Writing. Since that
printed without his privity, by an imperfect Copy, An. 1641. so full of Non-sence
errors, and mistakes almost in every line, as makes it altogether uselesse,
yea ridiculous: but now set out by a true Copy, agreeing with the originall;
to right the Author, and promote the publique good. Together with some briefe
Observations touching the Great Seale of England. Imprimatur Sept. 1. 1643.
John White. London, Printed for Michael Sparke senior, at the signe of the
Blew Bible in Greene-Arbour., 1643.
Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 2: 1644-1645
- 3 January 1644 - Thomas Goodwin, Philip Nye, Sidrach Simpson, Jeremiah Burroughes,
and William Bridge, An Apologetical Narration, humbly submitted to the Honourable
House of Parliament. (London: Printed for Robert Dawlman, 1643).
- 19 January 1644 - Richard Overton, Mans mortalitie: or, A treatise wherein
'tis proved, both Theologically and Philosophically, that whole Man (as
a rationall creature) is a compound wholly mortall, contrary to that common
distinction of Soule and Body: and that the present going of the Soule
into Heaven or Hell is a meer Fiction: and that at the Resurrection is
the beginning of our immortality, and then Actual Condemnation, and Salvation,
and not before. With all doubts and Objections Answered, and resolved,
both by Scripture and Reason; discovering the multitude of Blasphemies,
and Absurdities that arise from the fancie of the Soule. Also divers other
Mysteries, as, of Heaven, Hell, Christs humane residence, the extent of
the Resurrection, the New Creation, &c.
opened, and presented to the tryall of better judgments. By R.O. Amsterdam,
Printed by John Canne. Anno Dom. 1644.
- 24 March 1644 - Henry Robinson, Liberty of Conscience: Or the Sole means
to obtaine Peace and Truth. Not onely reconciling His majesty with His Subjects,
but all Christian States and princes to one another, with the freest passage
for the Gospel. Very seasonable and necessary in these distracted times,
when most men are weary of War, and cannot finde the way to Peace. Printed
in the Yeare 1643. [n.p.].
- June or July 1644 - [William Walwyn], The Compassionate Samaritane Unbinding
The Conscience, and powring Oyle into the wounds which have beene made upon
the Separation: recommending their future welfare to the serious thoughts
and carefull endeavors of all who love the peace and unity of Commonwealths
men, or desire the unanimous prosecution of the Common Enemie, or who follow
our Savious rule, to do unto others, what they would have others do unto
them. The Second Edition, corrected, and enlarged. Printed in the Yeare 1644.
- 29 July 1644 - [William Walwyn], Good Counsell to All those that heartily
desire the glory of God, the freedome of the Commonwealth, and the good of
all vertuous men. [n.p.].
- 2 September 1644 - John Goodwin, Theomachia; Or the Grand Imprudence of men
running the hazard of Fighting Against God, In suppressing any Way, Doctrine,
or Practice, concerning which they know not certainly whether it be from
God or no. Being the substance of two Sermons, Preached in Colemanstreet,
upon occasion of the late disaster sustain’d in the West. With some necessary
Enlargements thereunto. The second time Imprinted. (London: Printed for Henry
Overton, and are to be sold at his Shop entering into Popes-head-Alley out
of Lumbard-street. 1644).
- 7 January 1645 - John Lilburne, A Copy of a Letter, Written by John Lilburne
Lieut. Collonell. To Mr. William Prinne Esq. (Upon the coming out of his
last booke, intitled Truth triumphing over Falshood, Antiquity over Novelty)
In which he laies down five Propositions, which he desires to discusse with
the said Mr. Prinne. [n.p.].
- 6 February 1645 - [William Walwyn], A Helpe to the right understanding of
a Discourse concerning Independency. Lately published by William Pryn of
Lincolnes Inne, Esquire. Printed Anno Dom. 1644. [n.p.].
- 8 April 1645 - [Richard Overton], The Araignment of Mr. Persecution. Presented
to the Consideration of the House of Commons, and to all the Common People
of England. Wherein he is Indicted, Araigned, Convicted, and Condemned of
enmity against God, and all Goodness, of Treasons, Rebellion, Bloodshed,
etc. and sent to the place of Execution, In the prosecution whereof, the
Jesuiticall Designes, and secret Encroachments of his Defendants, Sir Symon
Synod and the John of all Sir Johns, Sir John Presbiter, upon the Liberty
of the Subject is detected and laid open. By Yongue Martin Mar-Priest, Son
to old Martin the Metrapolitane. This is Licenced, and printed according
to Holy Order, but not Entered into the Stationers Monopole. Europe. Printed
by Martin Claw Clergie, Printer to the Reverend Assembly of Divines and are
to be should at his Shop in Toleration Street, at the Signe of the Subjects
Liberty, right opposite to Persecuting Court. 1645. [n.p.].
- 30 August 1645 - John Lilburne, In the 150 page of the book called, An
exact collection of the Parliaments remonstrances, declarations, &c.
published by speciall order of the House of Commons, March 24. 1642. We
find there a question answered fit for all men to take notice of in these
- 8 October 1645 - [John Lilburne], Englands Birth-Right Justified Against
all Arbitrary Usurpation, whether Regall or Parliamentary, or under what
Vizor soever. With divers Queries, Observations and grievances of the People
declaring this Parliaments present Proceedings to be directly contrary to
those fundamentall Principles, whereby their Actions at first were justifyable
against the King, in their present Illegall dealings with those that have
sent their best Friends, Advancers and Preservers: And in other things of
high concernment to the Freedom of all the Free-born People of England; By
a Well-wisher to the just cause for which Lieutenant Col. John Lilburne is
unjustly imprisoned in New-gate. [n.p.].
- 11 October, 1645 - [William Walwyn], Englands Lamentable Slaverie Proceeding
from the Arbitrarie will, severitie, and Injustices of Kings, Negligence,
corruption, and unfaithfulnesse of parliaments, Covetousnesse, ambition,
and variablenesse of priests, and simplicitie, carelessnesse, and cowardlinesse
of People. Which slaverie, with the Remedie may be easily observed. By
the scope of a modest & smooth letter, written by a true Lover of his
Countrey and a faithful friend to that Worthy Instrument of Englands Freedome,
Lieuten. Collonell Lilburn, now unjustly imprisoned in Newgate. Being committed
first, by Order and Vote of parliament without cause Shewed, and then secondly
for refusing to answer some Interrogatories to their Committee of Examinations,
Contrarie to 1. The Great Charter of England. 2. The very words of the
Petition of right. 3. The Act made this present parliament; for the abolishing
the Star Chamber. 4. The Solemne Protestation of this Kingdom. 5. And to
the great Vow and Covenant for uniting the two kingdomes together. [n.p.].
- 29 December 1645 - [Richard Overton], The Ordinance for Tythes Dismounted,
from all Mosaicall, Evangelicall, and true Magesteriall Right. By this Valliant
and most Victorious Champion, the great Anti-Clergy of our Times, via Superlative
Holyness, Reverend Young Martin Mar-Priest, sohne to Old Martin the Metropolitane.
Commended and Presented to the Petitioners of Hertford-shire, for their further
encouragement, and for Provocation of other Counties to become Petitionary
with them against the unhallowed illegall Exaction of Tythes. Europe Printed
by Martin Claw-Clergy, Printer to the Reverend Assembly of Divines, for Bartholomew
Bang-Priest, and are to be sold at his shop in Toleration-street, at the
signe of the Subjects Liberty, right opposite to Persecution-Court, 1646.
Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 3: 1646
- 29 January 1646 - [William Walwyn], Tolleration Justified, and Persecution
Condemn'd. In an Answer or Examination, of the London-ministers Letter Whereof,
Many of them are of the Synod, and yet framed this Letter at Sion-Colledge;
to be sent among others, to themselves at the Assembly: in behalf of Reformation
and Church-government, 2 Corinth. II. vers. 14. 15. And no marvail, for Sathan
himself is transformed into an Angell of Light. Therefore it is no great
thing, though his Ministers transform themselves, as though they were Ministers
of Righteousnesse; whose end shall be according to their works. London, Printed
in the Year, 1646. [n.p.].
- February 1646 - John Lilburne and Richard Overton, The out-cryes of Oprressed
Commons. Directed to all the rationall and understanding men in the Kingdome
of England, and Dominion of Wales, (that have not resolved with themselves
to be Vassells and Slaves, unto the lusts and wills of Tyrants.) From Lieut.
Col. John Lilburne, prerogative prisone in the Tower of London, and Richard
Overton, prerogative prisoner, in the infamous Gaole of Newgate. Feb. 1646.
[n.p.]. The Second Edition Corrected.
- 13 March 1646 - William Walwyn, A Whisper in the Eare of Mr. Thomas Edwards
Minister. By William Walwyn marchant. Occasioned by his mentioning of him
reproachfully, in his late pernitious booke, justly entitled the Gangraea.
London, Printed according to Order, by Thomas Paine, for William Ley, at
- 19 March 1646 - William Walwyn, A Word More to Mr. Thomas Edwards Minister,
by William Walwyn Marchant. Concerning the Nationall Covenant. London, Printed
according to order, by Thomas Paine. 1646.
- 18 May 1646 - [William Walwyn], A Word in Season: to all sorts of wel minded
people in this miserably distracted and distempered nation. Plainly manifesting,
that the safety and wel-being of the Common-wealth under God, dependeth on
the fidelity, and stedfast adherence of the people, to those whom they have
chosen, and on their ready compliance with them. Also, That the destruction
and bondage of the Common-wealth in generall, and of every good minded man
in particular cannot be avoided, if the people, through want of consideration,
shall give eare to any other counsels or counsellers. Published by authority
for the publique good., London, Printed by Thomas Paine, dwelling in Red-Crosse-street,
in Goldsmiths-Alley, over against the signe of the Sugar-loafe, 1646.
- 10 June 1646 - William Walwyn, An Antidote against Master Edwards his old
and new Poyson: intended to preserve this long distempered Nation from a
most dangerous Relaps. Which his former, his later, and next Gangrenous Book
is likely to occasion, if not timely prevented. By William Walwin. London,
Printed by Thomas Paine, dwelling in Red-Crosse-street, in Goldsmiths-Alley,
over-against the signe of the Sugar-loafe. 1646.
- 16 June 1646 - John Lilburne, The Free-mans Freedom Vindicated. Or A true
Relation of the cause and manner of Lievt. Col. Iohn Lilburns present imprisonment
in Newgate, being thereunto arbitrarily and Illegally committed, by the House
of Peeres, Iune 11. 1646. for his delivering in, at their open Barre, under
his Hand and Seal, his Protestation, against their incroaching upon the Common
Liberties of all the Commons of England, in endeavouring to try him, a Commoner
of England, in a criminall cause, contrary to the expresse tenour and forme
of the 29. Chap. of the great Charter of England, and for making his legall
and iust appeal to his competent, propper and legal Tryers and Judges, the
Commons of England, in Parliament assembled. [n.p.]. 1646.
- 29 June 1646 - [William Walwyn], The Just Man in Bonds, or, Lieut. Col. John
Lilburne close prisoner in Newgate, by order of the House of Lords. [n.p.].
- 23 June 1646 - [William Walwyn], A Pearle in a Dounghill. Or Lieu. John Lilburne
in New-gate: Committed illegally by the House of Lords, first for refusing
(according to his Liberty) to answer Interrogatories, but protesting against
them as not being competent Judges, and appealing to the House of Commons.
Next committed close prisoner for his just refusing to kneel at the House
of Lords Barre. [n.p].
- June 1646 - William Larner, A Vindication of every Free-mans libertie against
all Arbitrary power and Government, Or, A Letter of William Larner, Prisoner,
to Sir Henry Vane junior, a Parliament man: Wherein is set forth his unjust
Imprisonment, and cruell hard dealings towards the said William Larner. [n.p.].
- 17 July 1646 - [Richard Overton], A Remonstrance of Many Thousand Citizens,
and other Free-born People of England, To their owne House of Commons. Occasioned
through the Illegall and barbarous Imprisonment of that Famous and Worthy
Sufferer for his Countries Freedoms, Lieutenant Col. John Lilburne. Wherein
their just Demands in behalfe of themelves and the whole Kingdome, concerning
their Publick Safety, Peace and Freedome, is Express’d; calling thoise their
Commissioners in Parliament to an Account, how they (since the beginning
of their Session, to this present) have discharged their Duties to the Universallity
of the People, their Sovereign Lord, from whom their Power and Strength is
derived, and by whom (ad bene placitum) it is continued. Printed in the Yeer.
- 1 August 1646 - [Richard Overton], An Alarum to the House of Lords: Against
their insolent Usurpation of the Common Liberties, and Rights of this Nation.
Manifested by them, in their present Tyrannicall Attempts against that
Worthy Commoner, Lieutenant Col. John Lilburne, Defendour of the Faith,
And of his Countries Freedoms, both by his Words, Deeds and Sufferings,
against all Tyrants in the Kingdome; Whether Black-coats, Papists, Kings,
Printed in the Yeer. 1646. [n.p.].
- 4 August 1646 - S. Shepheard, The Famers Fam’d or an Answer, To two Seditious
Pamphlets, the one Intituled The Just Man in Bonds, the other A Pearle in
a Dunghill, written in behalfe of that notorious Lyar, and Libeller John
Lilburne. Also a full reply, with a confutation of a certaine objections
devised by the Trayterous Author of a Seditioous and unparraled libel, Intituled
A Remonstrance of many Thousand Citizens, and other free borne People of
England, to their own House of Commons, etc. Wherein the wickednesse of the
Authors, and their Abettors, the destructive course of their Sectaries, and
their Adherors is amply discovered. So that all (not wilfully blind) may
cleerely see, that they are men stirred up by mass Enemie, the Devill, as
to ruine themselves, so this poor Nation, that yet lies Bedrid of her wounds
lately received. And ought to be avoided as Serpents, to be contemned as
Abjects, and to be delivered over to Satan, as Blasphemers and reprobates...
Written by S. Shepheard. London, Printed for John Hardesty, at the Signe
of the Black-spread Eagle in Ducke-Lane, 1646.
- 11 August 1646 - William Walwyn, A Prediction of Mr. Edwards. His Conversion,
and Recantation. (London. Printed by T.P. for G. Whittington and N. Brookes,
at the signe of the Angell in Cornhill, below the Exchange. 1646).
- 21 August 1646 - [John Lilburne], Liberty Vindicated against Slavery. Shewing,
that Imprisonment for Debt, refusing to answer Interrogatories, long imprisonment,
though for just causes. Abuse of Prisons, and cruell Extortion of Prison-keepers,
are all destructive to the fundamentall Laws and common Freedomes of the
people. Published for the use of all the Free-borne of England, whom it equally
concernes, by occasion of the House of Lords commitment of Lieut. Col. John
Lilburn, close prisoner, first to New-gate, and next to the Tower. By a lover
of his Country, and sufferer for the Common Liberty. Printed in the yeare
- 9 September 1646, [Richard Overton], A Defiance against all Arbitrary Usurpations
Or Encroachments, either of the House of Lords, or any other, upon the Soveraignty
of the Supreme House of Commons, (the High Court of Judicature of the Land)
or upon the Rights, Properties and Freedoms of the people in generall. Whereunto
is annexed, A Relation of the unjust and barbarous proceedings of the House
of Lords, against that worthy Commoner, Mr. Overton, who standeth by them
committed to the most contemptuous Goal of Newgate, for refusing to Answer
to Interrogatories, and Appealing from that Court to the Honourable House
of Commons (as by the great Charter of England he was bound) for the triall
of his cause. Howsoever the House of Lords do suggest in their Commitment
of him, that it was for his contemptuous words and gesture, refusing to answer
unto their Speaker. Which being every mans case, is published b y his friends
for the publick benefit of all the Free-born people of England, as it was
enclosed in a Letter to one of his friends. Printed in the yeer 1646. [n.p.]
- 7 October 1646, [William Walwyn], A Demurre to the Bill for Preventing the
Growth and Spreading of Heresie. Humbly presented to the Honourable House
of Commons. [n.p.].
- 12 October 1646 - Richard Overton, An Arrow against all Tyrants and Tyrany,
shot from the prison of New-gate into the Prerogative bowels of the Arbitrary
House of Lords, and all other Usurpers and Tyrants whatsoever. Wherein the
originall rise, extent, and end of magisteriall power, the naturall and nationall
rights, freedomes and properties of mankind are discovered, and undeniably
maintained; the late oppressions and encroachments of the Lords over the
commons legally (by the fundamental laws and statutes of the realm, as also
by a memorable extract out of the records of the Tower of London) condemned;
the late Presbyterian ordinance (invented and contrived by the diviners,
and by the motion of Mr. Bacon and Mr. Tate read in the House of Commons)
examined, refuted, and exploaded, as most inhumaine, tyranicall and barbarous.
By Richard Overton Prerogative archer to the arbitrary House of Lords, their
prisoner in New-gate, for the just and legal properties rights and freedoms
of the commons of England. Sent by way of a letter from him, to Mr Henry
Martin, a Member of the House of Commons. Imprimatur rectat justitia. London,
Printed at the backside of the Cyclopian Mountains, by Martin Claw-Clergy,
printer to the reverend Assembly of Divines, and are to be sould at the signe
of the Subjects Liberty, right opposite to persecuting Court. 1646.
- 29 October 1646 - William Walwyn, A Parable, or Consultation of Physitians
upon Master Edwards. Doctors: Love. Justice. Patience. Truth. Observers:
Conscience. Hope. Piety. Superstition. Policie. London, Printed by Thomas
Paine, for Giles Calvert, and are to be sold at his shop at the Black spread
Eagle, at the west end of Pauls Church. 1646.
- October 1646 - John Lilburne, London's Liberty in Chains discovered. And,
published by Lieutenant Colonell John Lilburn, prisoner in the Tower of London,
Octob. 1646. [n.p.]
- 19 November, 1646 - John Lilburne, Vox Plebis, or The Peoples Out-cry Against
Oppression, Injustice , and Tyranny. Wherein the Liberty of the Subjects
is asserted, Magna Charta briefly but pithily expounded. Lieutenant Colonell
Lilburnes Sentenced published and refuted. Committees arraigned, Gaolers
condemned, and remedies provided. London printed 1646, in the sitting of
Parliament, during which time the presses ought to be free and open, as the
Parliament declared to the Bishops at the beginning thereof. [n.p.].
- 18 December 1646 - John Lilburne, The Charters of London: or, The second
Part of Londons Liberty in Chaines discovered. In which by the ancient,
rationall, and fundamentall Charters of the famous City of London, is proved
and declared, that it is the true and undeniable right of all and every
the Barons, Burgesses, Free-men, or Commoners of London, to have their
free vote in chusing out, annually from amongst themselves, a Lord Major,
two Sheriffes, and all their Alder-men; which Aldermen are annually to
be removed by the Commons of every Ward; and being removed, may not be
chosen again for the ensuinge yeare, but others by common consent are to
be put into their places. Also it is declared, to be the right of the said
Barons or Commons, to chuse the Bridgemasters, Chamberlaiin, Common-Clerk,
and Common-Sergeant, etc. of the City of london, and to be removed by them
when they please. All which privileges, with many others, they are now
rob’d of, by their late incroaching, and usurping, illegall Lord Mayors, & Aldermen, etc. Upto which Charters is annexed, a Discourse,
to prove, that though Kings and Parliaments may confirme unto the people
their rights, freedoms and liberties; yet it lies not in their poweer to
take them from them againe when they please; no, not at all: because all
betrusted powers are (as both Kings & Parliaments, & all other Magistrates
whatsoever are,) & ought always to be, for the good of the Trusters,
and not for their mischief and hurt. In which is also proved, that all
Pattentee-Monopolizing-Corporations are against, and destructive to the
fundamentall Laws of England; and that it is impossible for justice, peace,
or prosperity, to flourish in this kingdom, till they be all abolished.
With divers other things worth the knowledg of all the free-men, not only
of London, but of all England. For whose good this is published by Lieut.
Col: John Lilburn, prisoner in the Tower of London, for the common liberties
of the kingdome against the usurpations of the House of Lords. Printed
at London. Decemb. 18. 1646. [n.p.].
Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 4: 1647
- 6 January 1647 - John Lilburne, Regall Tyrannie discovered: Or, A Discourse,
shewing that all lawfull (approbational) instituted power by God amongst
men, is by common agreement, and mutual consent. Which power (in the hands
of whomsoever) ought alwayes to be exercised for the good, benefit, and welfare
of the Trusters, and never ought other wise to be administered: Which, whensoever
it is, it is justly resistable and revokeable; It being against the light
of Nature and reason, and the end wherefore God endowed Man with understanding,
for any sort or generation of men to give so much power into the hands of
any man or men whatsoever, as to enable them to destroy them, or to suffer
such a kind of power to be excercised over them, by any man or men, that
shal assume it unto himself, either by the sword, or any other kind of way.
In which is also punctually declared, The Tyrannie of the Kings of England,
from the dayes of William the Invader and Robber, and Tyrant, alias the Conqueror,
to this present King Charles, Who is plainly proved to be worse, and more
tyrannicall then any of his Predecessors, and deserves a more severe punishment
from the hands of this present Parliament, then either of the dethroned Kings,
Edw.2. or Rich. 2. had from former Parliaments; which they are bound by duty
and oath, without equivocation or colusion to inflict upon him, He being
the greatest Delinquent in the three Kingdoms, and the head of all the rest.
Out of which is drawn a Discourse, occasioned by the Tyrannie and Injustice
inflicted by the Lords, upon that stout-faithful-lover of his Country, and
constant Sufferer for the Liberties thereof, Lieut. Col. John Lilburn, now
prisoner in the Tower. In which these 4. following Positions are punctually
handled. 1. That if it were granted that the Lords were a legall jurisdiction,
and had a judicative power over the Commons; yet the manner of their dealing
with Mr. Lilburn, was, and is illegall and unjust. 2. That the Lords by right
are no Judicature at all. 3. That by Law and Right they are no Law makers.
4. That by Law and Right it is not in the power of the king, nor in the power
of the House of Commons it selfe, to delegate the legislative power, either
to the Lords divided, or conjoyned; no, nor to any other person or persons
whatever. Vnto which is annexed a little touch, upon some palbable miscarriages,
of some rotten Members of the House of Commons: which House, is the absolute
sole lawmaking, and law-binding Interest of England. London, Printed Anno
Dom. 1647. [n.p.].
- 10 February 1647 - [Richard Overton], The Commoners Complaint: Or, A Dreadful
Warning from Newgate, to the Commons of England. Presented To the Honourable
Committee for consideration of the Commoners Liberties. Wherein (as in a
Glasse) every Free-man of England may clearly behold his own immanent insufferable
bondage and slavery under the norman-Prerogative Men of this Kingdom, represented
by the present sufferings of Richard Overton; who for his just Vindication
of the Commoners Rights and Freedoms against the Arbitrary Domination of
the House of Lords, hath by them bin imprisoned these 6 Months in the Goal
of Newgate, his wife and brother also by them most unjustly cast into maidenlane
prison: And from thence, she (with her tender babe of half a years age in
her armes) was, for refusing active subjection to their Arbitrary Orders,
dragg’d most barbarously and inhumanely head-long upon the stones through
the streets in the dirt and mire (as was her husband formerly (Novemb. 3.
1646) for the said cause) worse then Rebels, Traytors, Thieves, or Murtherers,
to the place of execution: And in that most contemptible and villainous manner
cast into the most reproachful, infamous Goal of Bride-well: And their 3
small children (as helplesse Orphans bereft of father and Mother, Sister
and Brother) exposed to the mercy of the wide world. Whereunto is annexed
the repsective Appeales of his wife, and of his brother, unto the High Court
of Parliament, the Commons of England assembled at Westminster. Printed Ann
Dom. 1646. [n.p.].
- March 1647 - [Several Hands but probably a major role by William Walwyn],
[also known as “The Petition of March”], To the Right Honourable and Supreme
Authority of this Nation, the Commons in Parliament assembled. The humble
Petition of many thousands, earnestly desiring the glory of God, the freedome
of the Commonwealth, and the peace of all men. [n.p.].
- March/April 1647 - William Walwyn, A Still and Soft Voice From the Scriptures
Witnessing them to be the Word of God. Printed in the Yeare, 1647. [n.p.].
- 30 April 1647 - John Lilburne, The resolved mans Resolution, to maintain
with the last drop of his heart blood, his civill Liberties and freedomes,
granted unto him by the good, just, and honest declared lawes of England,
(his native Country) and never to sit still, so long as he hath a tongue
to speake, or a hand to write, til he hath either necessitated his Adversaries,
the house of Lords, and their Arbitrary Associates in the house of Commons,
either to doe him justice and right, by delivering him from his causelesse
and illegall imprisonment, and out unto him, legall and ample reparations,
for all his unjust sufferings or else send him to Tyburne: of which he is
not afraid, and doubteth not if they doe it, but at and by his death, to
doe them (Sampson like) more mischief, then he did them all his life. All
which is expressed and declared in the following Epistle, written by Lieut.
Coll. John Lilburne, Prerogative Prisoner in the Tower of London, to a true
friend of his, a Citizen thereof, Aprill 1647. [n.p.].
- 5 June 1647 - Anon., A Solemne Engagement of the Army, under the Command
of his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, read, assented unto, and subscribed
by all Officers, and Souldiers of the severall Regiments, at the generall
Rendezvous neare Newmarket, on the fift of June, 1647.
- 14 June 1647 - [Signed by John Rushworth, attributed to Henry Ireton], [Declaration
of the Army], A Declaration, or, Representation From his Excellency, Sir
Thomas Fairfax, And the Army under his command, Humbly tendred to the parliament,
Concerning the iust and Fundamentall Rights and Liberties of themselves and
the kingdome. With Some humble Proposals and Desires. June 14, 1647. By the
appoyntment of his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, With the Officers and Souldiers
of his Army, Signed John Rushworth, Secretary. London, Printed for George
Wittington at the Blew Anchor in Corn-hill, neere the Exchange. 1647.
- 10 June 1647 - [William Walwyn], The poore Wise-mans Admonition unto All
the plaine People of London, and Neighbour-Places. To strengthen them in
the houre of temptation, that they may be happy and exemplary instruments
to all other People, in preserving the City, Parliament, and whole Nation,
from imminent and sudden destruction. Printed in the Yeere 1647.
- 14 June 1647 - [William Walwyn], Gold Tried in the Fire, or The burnt Petitions
revived. A Preface. [n.p.].
- 21 June 1647, [Several hands, calling themselves “Agitators”], A Copie of
a Letter Sent From the Agitators of his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax’s Armie,
To All the honest Sea-men of England: Heartily and cordially declaring their
reall intentions to the peace and prosperity of the Kingdome, and the firme
setling and establishing of all the just Interests thereof, into the hands
and posessions the right Owners of them. Dated at S. Albans 21. June 1647.
Published by the Order and speciall desire of the said Agitators. London:
Printed for R.A. 1647.
- 17 July 1647 - [Richard Overton], An Appeale from the degenerate Representative
Body the Commons of England assembled at Westminster: To the Body Represented,
The free people in general of the several Counties, Cities, Townes, Burroughs,
and places within this Kingdome of England, and Dominion of Wales. And in
especiall, To his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax (Captaine Generall) and to
all the Officers and Souldiers under his Command. By Richard Overton, Prisoner
in the infamous Goale of Newgate, for the Liberties and Freedomes of England.
London, Printed in the yeare, 1647. [n.p.]
- 15 October 1647 - [Signed by Several People, but attributed to John Wildman],
The Case of the Armie Truly stated, together with the mischiefes and dangers
that are imminent, and some sutable remedies, Humbly proposed by the Agents
of five Regiments of Horse, to their respective Regiments, and the whole
Army. As it was presented by Mr. Edmond Bear, and Mr. William Russell, October
15. 1647. unto his Excellency, Sir Thomas Fairfax. Enclosed in a Letter from
the said Agents: Also his Excellencies Honourable Answer thereunto. London:
Printed in the Yeare, 1647.
- 29 October 1647 - [John Wildman], A Cal to all the Souldiers of the Armie,
by the Free People of England. 1. Justifying the Proceedings of the Five
Regiments. 2. Manifesting the necessity of the whole Armies joyning with
them, in all their faithfull endeavours, both for removing of all Tyranny
and oppression, chiefly Tythes and Excise, and establishing the just liberties
and peace of this Nation. 3. Discovering (without any respect of persons)
the chiefe Authors, contrivers and increasers of all our miseries, especially
the new raised hypocrits, by whose treacherous practices, all the just intentions
and actions of the Adjutators and other well minded Souldiers, have been
made fruitless. Printed in the yeare 1647. [n.p.].
- 3 November 1647 - [Several Hands], An Agreement of the People for a firme
and present Peace, upon grounds of common-right and freedome; As it was proposed
by the Agents of the five Regiments of Horse; and since by the generall approbation
of the Army, offered to the joynt concurrence of all the free Commons of
England. Printed Anno. Dom. 1647. [n.p.]
- 23 November 1647 - [Signed by Several], [The Petition of November], To the
supream Authority of England, the Commons in Parliament assembled. The humble
Petition of many free-born people. Together with a Copy of the Order of the
Commitment of five of the Petitioners, viz. Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Samuel
Chidley in the Gate-House. Capt. Taylor, Mr. William Larner, and Mr. Ives
in Newgate. As also some Observations upon the said Order. [n.p].
- October/November 1647 - [Several Hands], “The Putney Debates”, The General
Council of Officers at Putney. These important debates are not included
in this collection of tracts. They are available at the Online Library
of Liberty website from the book Puritanism and Liberty, being the Army
Debates (1647-9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary Documents,
selected and edited with an Introduction A.S.P. Woodhouse, foreword by
A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951). <http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/2183>.
- 14 December 1647 - [Signed by Several, attributed to John Lilburne], Englands
Freedome, Souldiers Rights: Vindicated against all arbitrary unjust Invaders
of them, and in particular against those new Tyrants at Windsore, which would
destroy both under the pretence of Marshall Law. Or, The just Declaration,
Plea and Protestation of William Thompson, a free Commoner of England, unjustly
imprisoned at Windsore. Delivered to his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, and
that which is called his Councell of Warre, the 14 of December, 1647. Unto
which is annexed his Letter to the Generall, wherein the said Plea was inclosed.
Also a Petition of the rest of his Fellow-Prisoners to his Excellency. [n.p.].
- 30 December 1647 - John Wildman (with William Walwyn), Putney Projects. Or
the Old Serpent in a new Forme. Presenting to the view of all the well affected
in England, the Serpentine deceit of their pretended friends in the Armie,
indeavouring to introduce Tyranny and Slavery in a new method. Composed by
the diligent and impartiall observation and certain intelligence of John
Lawmind. London, Printed in the yeare. 1647. [n.p.].
Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 5: 1648
- 1 January 1648 - William Prynne, A New Magna Charta: Enacted and confirmed
By the High and Mighty States, the Remainder of the Lords and Commons, now
sitting at Westminster, in Empty Parliament, under the Command and Wardship
of Sir Thomas Fairfax, Lievtenant Generall Cromwell, (our present Soveraigne
Lord the King, now residing at his Royall Pallace at White-Hall) and Prince
Ireton his sonne, and the Army under their Command. Containing the many new,
large and ample Liberties, Customes and Franchises, of late freely granted
and confirmed to our Soveraigne lord King Charles, his Heires and Successors;
the Church and State of England and Ireland, and all the Freemen, and Free-borne
People of the same. Printed in the yeere 1648. [n.p.].
- 10 January 1648 - William Prynne, The Machavilian Cromwellist and Hypocritical
perfidious New Statist Discovering The most detestable Falshood, Dissimulation
and Machavilian Practices of L. G. Cromwel and his Confederates, whereby
they have a long time abused and cheated both the Houses, City and Country;
and the wicked and treasonable things they have done, and unwarrantable means
they have used, to carry on their own ambitious Designs. Printed in the year
- 8 January 1648 - William Prynne, The Petition of Right of the Free-holders
and Free-men of the Kingdom of England: Humbly presented to the Lords and
Commons (their Representatives and Substitutes) from whom they expect a speedy
and satisfactory answer, as their undoubted Liberty and Birth-right. Printed
in the year, 1648. [n.p.].
- 18 January 1648 - [Anon.], [The Petition of 18 January 1648], To the Supream
Authority of England, the Commons Assembled in Parliament, The earnest Petititon
of many Free-born People of this Nation. [n.p.].
- 22 January 1648 - [Anon], The Mournfull Cryes of Many Thousand Poor Tradesmen,
who are ready to famish through decay of Trade. Or, The warming Tears of
the Oppressed. [n.p.].
- 28 January 1648 - John Lilburne, A Defiance to Tyrants. Or The Araignment
of Two Illegall Committees. viz. The close Committee of Lords and Commons
appointed to examine the London Agents. And the Committee of Plundered Ministers.
In two Pleas made by L.C. Lilburne Prerogative Prisoner in the the Tower
of London. Wherein is clearely Declared the unjustness, arbitrariness, and
absolute unlawfulness of the late proceedings of that close Committee of
Lords and Commons against the London Agents. And also, Proving all the proceedings
of the Committee of Plundered Ministers in summoning and imprisoning severall
Citizens of London, for refusing to pay Tythes, to bee an absolute subversion
of the fundamentall Lawes of the Land, and Treason of as high a nature as
any the Earle of Strafford lost his head for; They making their Will a Law
unto the Kingdome; There being no Law at all in the Kingdome, whereby the
London-Priests can claime Tythes, or recover them from any of their Parishoners.
London, Printed for the information of all men, that are not willing to be
Priests ridden and to the slaves to Tyrannie and oppression, Jan. 1648. [n.p.].
- 5 February 1648 - Henry Parker, Of a Free Trade. A discourse Seriously Recommending
to our Nation the wonderfull benefits of Trade, especially of a rightly Governed,
and Ordered Trade. Setting forth also most clearly, The Relative Nature,
Degrees, and Qualifications of Libertie, Which is ever to be inlarged, or
restrained according to that Good, which it Relates to, as that is more,
or lesse ample. Written by Henry Parker Esquire. London: Printed by Fr: Neile
for Robert Bostock, dwelling in Pauls Church-yard, at the Signe of the King's
Head, 1648. [n.p.].
- 7 February 1648 - Henry Marten, The Parliaments Proceedings justified, in
Declining A Personall Treaty with the King, Notwithstanding the Advice of
the Scotish Commissioners to that purpose. By Henry Marten Esquire, a Member
of the Commons House. London, Printed for John Sweeting at the Angel in Popes-head
- 14 February 1648 - [author not clear, but signed by John Lilburne, John Wildman,
John Davies, Richard Woodward], A Declaration of some Proceedings of Lt.
Col. John Lilburn And his Associates: With Some Examination, and Animadversion
upon Papers lately Printed, and scattered abroad. One called The earnest
Petition of many Free-born People of this Kingdome: Another The mournfull
Cries of many thousand poor Trades-men, who are ready to famish for want
of Bread, or, The Warning Tears of the Oppressed. Also a Letter sent to Kent.
Likewise a true Relation of Mr. Masterson’s Minister of Shoreditch, Signed
with his owne hand. Published by Authority, for the undeceiving of those
who are misled by these Deceivers, in many places of this Kingdom. (London.
Printed for Humphrey Harward, and are to be sold at his Shop, the Crown and
Bible at budge-Row-End, near Canning-street. Anno Domini 1648.
- 17 February 1648 - John Lilburne, The peoples Prerogative and Priviledges,
asserted and vindicated, (against all Tyranny whatsoever.) By Law and Reason.
Being A Collection of the Marrow and Soule of Magna Charta, And of all the
most principall Statutes made ever since to this present yeare, 1647. For
the preservation of the peoples Liberties and properties. With cleare proofs
and demonstrations, that now their Lawes and Liberties are nigher Subvertion,
then they were when they first began to fight for them, by a present swaying
powerfull Faction, amongst the Lords, Commons, and Army, that have already
de facto, levelled our Lawes and Liberties to their Arbitrary and Tyrannicall
Wills and pleasures, so that perfect Vassalage and Slavery (by force of Armes)
in the nature of Turkish janisaries, or the Regiments of the Guards of France,
is likely (to perpetuitie) to be setled, if the people doe not speedily look
about them, and act vigorusly for the preventing of it. Compiled by Lievt.
Col. John Lilburne, prerogative Prisoner in the Tower of London, and published
by him for the instruction, information and benefit of all true hearted English-men.
London, Printed in the yeare, when some of the mercinary Officers and Souldiers
of Sir Thomas Fairfaxes Army, that were pretendedly raised for to fight for
the Liberties and Freedomes of England, avowedly drew their Swords at the
House of Commons doore, to destroy those that really stood for their Lawes
and Liberties, 1647 [i.e. 1648]. [n.p.].
- 21 February 1648 - William Prynne, The Levellers Levelled to the very Ground.
Wherein this dangerous Seditious Opinion and design of some of them; That
it is necessary, decent, and expedient, now to reduce the House of Peeres,
and bring down the Lords into the Commons House, to sit and Vote together
with them, as one House. And the false absurd, grounds whereon they build
this Paradox, are briefly examined, refuted, and laid in the dust. By William
Prynne, Esquire. London : Printed by T.B. for Michael Spark, 1647 [i.e. 1648].
- 4 April 1646 - John Lilburne, The Prisoners Plea for a Habeas Corpus, Or
an Epistle writ by L.C. Joh. Lilburne prerogative prisoner in the Tower of
London the 4. of Aprill, to the Honourable Mr. W. Lenthall Speaker of the
House of Commons. In which is fully proved, that the Judges are bound by
Law and their Oaths to grant a Habeas Corpus to any prisoner whatsoever that
craves it, by whomsoever committed, and to deny it (whosoever commands the
contrary) is to forsweare themselves, for which they may be in Law indicted
for perjury, and upon conviction, are for ever to be discharged of their
office, service and councell. In which is also declared the usurpation of
Mr. Oliver Crumwell, who hath forcibly usurped unto himselfe the Office of
L.G. in the Army, for almost 12. moneths together, and thereby hath robbed
the Kingdome of its treasure, under pretence of pay, which he hath no right
unto, and by the power of the said Office hath tyrannized over the lives,
Liberties, and estates of the freemen of England in a higher manner then
ever Stratford or Canterbury did, all which John Lilburne will venture his
life according to the Law of the Land to make good, unto which he hath annexed
his Epistle which he writ to the Prentices of London the 10th of May 1639
when he was like to be murdered in the Fleet by the Bishops, as now he is
like to be murdered in the Tower, by Crumwell and his tirannicall fellow
- 21 August 1648 - [William Walwyn], The Bloody Project, Or a discovery
of the New Designe, in the present War. Being a perfect Narrative of the
present proceedings of the severall Grandee Factions, for the prevention
of a Just Peace, and promoting of a causelesse Warre, to the destruction
of the King, Parliament & People. Whereunto is annexed Several Expedients
for a happy Accommodation tending to the satisfaction of all Parties, without
the further effusion of blood. (W.P. Gent. Printed in this Yeare of dissembling,
- 11 September 1648 - [Anon. but sometimes attributed to Walwyn, Overton, or
Lilburne], [The Petition of 11 September 1648], To the Right Honourable,
the Commons of England In Parliament Assembled. The humble Petition of divers
wel affected Persons inhabiting the City of London, Westminster, the Borough
of Southwark, Hamblets, and places adjacent. Whereunto is annexed, The humble
desires of the said Petitioners for the Houses resolution thereon, before
they proceed with the personal Treaty. [n.p.].
- 11 September 1648 - [Anon. Signed by “A Lover of Peace and Truth”], A Full
Answer to the Levellers Petition, Presented to the House of Commons, On Monday
Septemb. 11. 1648. Wherein the divellish poyson therein contained, is discussed
throughout: By way of confutation of every materiall branch thereof. Contrived
for the satisfaction of all those, who are not able to discover the danger
of those destructive and abominable Principles therein delivered: And to
recall those who are; or shall be misled thereby. By a Lover of Peace and
Truth. Printed in the Yeere 1648. [n.p.].
- 18 November 1648 - Oliver Cromwell, Oliver, A New Remonstrance and Declaration
from the Army, to the Kings Majesty, and the Prince of Wales; and their Message,
Proposals, and Protestation, for the conducting of His Majesties Royall person
from the Isle of Wight, to His Palace at Westminster, in honour, freedome,
and tryumph. With the time of His Majesties comming, the Articles and conditions
thereof, and the Armies further proposals to the Citizens of London, concerning
his Majesty, and the Presbyterian and Independent party. Sent from the Army
Novemb. 18. to be printed and published. [n.p.].
- 6 December 1648 - King Charles I, Prince of Wales, Oliver Cromwell, The Kings
Majesties Message to His Highnesse the Prince of Wales. Concerning the Lord
Generall Fairfax, and the Army; and His Propositions and Desires therein,
to be communicated to the Right Honorable the Earl of Warwick, Lord high
Admirall of England. Dated from Hurst Castle, the 6. of December, 1648. Also,
His Majesties letter to the Parliament, touching the Army, and the confinement
of his Royal person to the said Castle; with his desires to the Citizens
of London, touching the same. And Lieutenant Gen. Crumwels Declaration in
reference to the King, City, and Kingdom. Signed O. Crumwel. Printed for
G. Wharton, 1648.
- 15 December 1648 - [Anon., sometimes attributed to Lilburne or Overton],
Foundations of Freedom, Or An Agreement of the People: Proposed as a Rule
for future Government in the Establishment of a firm and lasting Peace. Drawn
up by severall wel-affected Persons, and tendered to the consideration of
the Generall Councell of the Army. And now offered to the Consideration of
all Persons who are at liberty by Printing or otherwise, to give their Reasons,
for, or against it. Unto which is annexed severall Grievances by some Persons,
offered to be inserted in the said Agreement, but adjudged only necessary
to be insisted on, as fit to be removed by the next Representatives. Publish’d
for satisfaction of all honest Interests. London, Printed for R. Smithurst,
- 21 December 1648 - [Anon.], No Papist Nor Presbyterian: But the modest Desires
and proposalls of Some well-affected and Free-born People: Offered to The
Generall Councell of the Armie, for Redresse of Grievances, In order to the
late Representative, and Agreement of the People. Quod tibi non vis, alteri
ne feceris. Published for generall satisfaction, 1649.
- 22 December 1648 - [Lieut. Col. John Jubbes], Several Proposals for Peace & Freedom
by an Agreement of the People, Offered unto Commissary General Ireton for
the Concurrence of the Army, by the Approbation and Consent of many worthy
Persons of the Common Councel And others of the City of London, on the Eleventh
of this instant December, To be Agreed unto, and Subscribed by all the Inhabitants
of England & Wales. London: Printed for J. Hanes, Decemb. 22. 1648.
- December 1648 - January 1649 - [Several Hands], “The Whitehall Debates”,
The General Council of Officers at Whitehall. These important debates are
not included in this collection of tracts. They are available at the Online
Library of Liberty website from the book Puritanism and Liberty, being
the Army Debates (1647-9) from the Clarke Manuscripts with Supplementary
Documents, selected and edited with an Introduction A.S.P. Woodhouse, foreword
by A.D. Lindsay (University of Chicago Press, 1951). <http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/2183>.
- 1648 - [Anon. Signed by “R.KL., a Member of the Army”], A Free Mans Plea
for Freedom, Against the Arbitrairie unwarrantable actions and proceedings
of the Apostate Associates, commonly called by others, Levellers. Wherein
is briefly discussed how unsuitable they walke to common Right and Freedom,
being more Arbitrairie and Tyrannicall then any the oppose, wanting only
a power to exercise their Crueltie. By. R.L. A Member of the Army. London,
Printed for Robert White. 1649.
Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 6: 1649
- 19 January 1649 - [Anon.], To the Right Honourable, The Supreme Authority
of this Nation, the Commons of England in Parliament assembled. The humble
Petition of firm and constant Friends to the Parliament and Common-wealth,
Presenters and Promoters of the late Large Petition of September 11. 1648.
- 20 January 1649 - John Rushworth, [The Officers’ Agreement], A Petition from
His Excellency Thomas Lord Fairfax And the General Councel of Officers of
the Army, To the Honourable, the Commons of England in Parliament assembled,
Concerning the Draught of An Agreement of the People For a secure and present
Peace, by them framed and prepared. Together with the said Agreement presented
on Saturday, Jan. 20. And a Declaration of his Excellency and the said General
Councel, concerning the same. Tendered to the Consideration of the people.
By the Appointment of the Generall Councel of Officers of the Army. Signed
John Rushworth, Sec. London, Printed for John Partridge, R. Harford, G. Calvert,
and G. Whittington. 1649.
- 26 February 1649 - John Lilburne, Englands New Chains Discovered; Or The
serious apprehensions of a part of the People, in behalf of the Commonwealth;
(being Presenters, Promoters, and Approvers of the Large Petition of September
11. 1648.) Presented to the Supreme Authority of England, the Representatives
of the people in Parliament assembled. By Lieut. Col. John Lilburn, and divers
other Citizens of London, and Borough of Southwark; February 26. 1648. whereunto
his speech delivered at the Bar is annexed. [n.p.].
- 12 March 1649 - [William Walwyn], The Vanitie of the present Churches, and
Uncertainty of their Preaching, discovered. Wherein The pretended immediate
teaching of the Spirit, is denyed, and the all-sufficiency of the Scriptures
teaching, is maintained. With, A new and true Method of reading thereof,
for the peace of mind, and the rule of life. London, Printed by J. Clows,
and are to be sold in Cornhill and Popes-Head-Alley, 1649.
- 21 March 1649 - [Signed by Robert Ward, Thomas Watfon, Simon Graunt, George
Jellis, William Sawyer (or 5 “Beagles”), but attributed to Richard Overton
or John Lilburne], The Hunting of the Foxes from New-Market and Triploe-Heaths
to White·Hall, by five small Beagles (late of the Armie.) Or The Drandie-Deceivers
Unmasked (that you may know them.) Directed to all the Free-Commons of England,
but in especiall, to all that have, and are still engaged in the Military
Service of the Common-Wealth. By Robert Ward, Thomas Watson, Simon Graunt,
George Jellis, and William Sawyer, late Members of the Army. Printed in a
Corner of Freedome, right opposite to the Councel of Warre, Anno Domini,
- 24 March 1649 - [John Lilburne], The Second Part of Englands New-Chaines
Discovered: Or a sad Representation of the uncertain and dangerous condition
of the Common-Wealth: Directed To the Supreme Authority of England, the Representors
of the People in Parliament assembled. By severall wel-affected persons inhabiting
the City of London, Westminster, the Borough of Southward, Hamblets, and
places adjacent, presenters and approvers of the late large Petition of the
Eleventh of September. 1648. All persons who are assenting of this Representation,
are desired to subscribe it, and bring in their Subscriptions to the Presenters
and Approvers of the foresaid Petition of the 11 of Sept. London, Printed
in the Year, 1649. [n.p.].
- 4 April, 1649 - John Lilburne, Thomas Prince, Richard Overton, The Picture
of the Councel of State, Held forth to the Free people of England by Lieut.
John Lilburn, Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Richard Overton, now Prisoners in
the Tower of London, Or, A full Narrative of the late Extra-judicial and
Military Proceedings against them. Together with the Substance of their several
Examinations, Answers and Deportments before them at Darby house, upon the
28. of March last. Printed in the Year, 1649. [n.p.].
- 5 April 1649 - [William Walwyn], The English Souldiers Standard to repair
to, for Wisdom and Understanding in these doleful backsliding times. To be
read by every honest Officer to his Souldiers, and by the Souldiers one to
- 14 April 1649 - [Signed by John Lilburn, William Walwyn, Thomas Price, Richard
Overton, sometimes attributed mainly to Walwyn], A Manifestation from Lieutenant
Col. John Lilburn, Mr William Walwyn, Mr Thomas Prince, and Mr Richard Overton,
(Now Prisoners in the Tower of London) And others, commonly (though unjustly)
styled Levellers. Intended for their Full Vindication from the many aspersions
cast upon them, to render them odious to the World, and unserviceable to
the Common-wealth. And to satisfie and ascertain all men whereunto all their
Motions and Endeavours tend, and what is the ultimate Scope of their Engagement
in the Publick Affaires. They also that render evill for good, are Our adversaries:
because we follow the thing that good is. Printed in the year of our Lord,
- 23 April 1649 - [John Prince], Walwyns Wiles: Or The manifesters Manifested
viz. Lieut. Col. John Lilburn, Mr William Walwyn, Mr Richard Overton, and
Mr Tho. Prince. Discovering themselves to be Englands new Chains and Irelands
back Friends. Or The hunting of the old Fox with his Cubs and the Picture
of the Picturers of the Councel of State. Declaring the subtle and crafty
Wiles of the Atheisticall Blasphemous, foul-murthering principles, and practises
of Mr William Walwyn, in plentifull instances, confirming the same with some
advertisements to Lieu. Col. John Lilburn, and Mr Tho. Prince. By a Lover
of the Present, and Eternall, interest of Man-kinde. The Second Edition,
Corrected and amended. April 23. 1649. Imprimatur, Henry Whalley. London,
Printed for H.C. and L.L. 1649.
- 1 May 1649 - John Lilburne, William Walwyn, Thomas Prince, Richard Overton,
An Agreement of the Free People of England. Tendered as a Peace-Offering
to this distressed Nation. By Lieutenant Colonel John Lilburne, Master William
Walwyn, Master Thomas Prince, and Master Richard Overton, Prisoners in the
Tower of London, May the 1. 1649. London, Printed for Gyles Calvert at the
blaclkspread-Eagle at the West end of Pauls, 1649.
- 4 May 1649 - Robert Lockier, John Lilburne, and Richard Overton, The Army's
Martyr, Or, A more ful Relation of the barbarous and illegall proceedings
of the Court-Martiall at White-Hall Upon Mr. Robert Lockier: Who was shot
to death in Paul's Church-yard upon the 27 day of April, 1649. And a brief
Narrative of the Cause thereof. With his Christian carriage and deportment,
and his dying Speeches to all his fellow-souldiers at the time of his Execution,
as an everlasting witnesse of his integrity to the Rights and Freedoms of
the Common-Wealth. With a Petition Of divers well-affected persons, and a
Letter of Lieut. Col. Jo. Lilburne, and M. Ri. Overton, Presented to the
General in his behalf. Printed at London in the Yeer 1649. [n.p.].
- 14 May 1649 - Oliver Cromwell, The Declaration of Lieutenant Generall Crumwel
Concerning the Levellers; and His Letter and Representation to the Agitators
of the respective Regiments who have deserted and declared against the Parliament,
the Councell of State, and the late proceedings of the High Court of Justice.
With the Declaration, Resolution, and Proposals of the said Levellers, presented
to the view of the World, intimating the Grounds and Reasons of their Engagement,
and to die as one man with their swords in their hands, rather then to be
inslaved. Also, Two Fights between the Levellers and the parliamenteers,
neer Worcester and Banbury, the particulars thereof, and the number killed;
with the Levellers Summons to the City of Coventry. Imprinted at London,
for G.H., May 14. 1649.
- 28 May 1649 - [Humphrey Brooke], The Charity of Church-men: or, A Vindication
of Mr William Walwyn Merchant, from the aspersions plentifully cast upon
him in a Pamphlet, Intituled, Walwyn’s Wiles. By H.B. Med. a friend to Truth,
his Country and Mr Walwyn. London, Printed by H. Hils, and are to be sold
by W. Larnar, at the sign of the Blackmore, near Bishops-gate. 1669.
- 30 May 1649 - William Walwyn, The Fountain of Slaunder Discovered. By William
Walwyn, Merchant. With some passages concerning his present Imprisonment
in the Tower of London. Published for satisfaction of Friends and Enemies.
London, Printed by H. Hils, and are to be sold by W. Larnar, at the sign
of the Blackmore, near Bishops-gate. 1649]
- 8 June 1649 - John Lilburne, The Legall Fundamentall Liberties of the People
of England Revived, Asserted, and Vindicated. Or, An Epistle written the
eighth day of June 1649, by lieut. Colonel John Lilburn (Arbitrary and Aristocratical
prisoner in the Tower of London) to Mr. William Lenthall Speaker to the remainder
of those few knights, Citizens, and burgesses that Col. Thomas Pride at his
late purge thought convenient to leave sitting at Westminster (as most fit
for his and his Masters designes, to serve their ambitious and tyrannical
ends, to destroy the good old Laws, Liberties and Customs of England, the
badges of our freedom (as the Declaration against the King, of the 17 of
March 1648, pag. 23. calls them) and by force of arms to rob the people of
their lives, estates and properties, and subject them to perfect vassalage
and slavery, as he cleerly evinceth in his present Case etc. they have done)
who (and in truth no other-wise) pretendedly stile themselves (the Conservators
of the peace of England, or) the Parliament of England, intrusted and authorised
by the consent of all the people thereof, whose Representatives by election
(in the Declaration last mentioned, pag. 27. they say) they are; although
they are never able to produce one bit of a Law, or any piece of a Commission
to prove, that all the people of England, or one quarter, tenth, hundred,
or thousand part of them authorised Thomas pride, with his Regiment of Souldiers,
to chuse them a Parliament, as indeed he hath de facto done by this pretended
mock Parliament: And therefore it cannot properly be called the Nations or
Peoples Parliament, but Col Pride’s and his associates, whose really it is;
who, although they have beheaded the King for a Tyrant, yet walk in his oppressingest
steps, if not worse and higher. John 7.51. Doth our Law judge any man, before
it hear him and know what he doth? Acts 24.23. And he commanded a Centurion
to keep Paul and to let him have liberty, and that he should forbid none
of his acquaintance to minister, or come unto him, (although in ver. 5. he
was accused for a most pestilent fellow, and a mover of sedition throughout
all the world.) Acts 25.27. For it seemeth to me unreasonable (saith the
heathen Judge) to send a prisoner, and not withall to signifie the crimes
laid against him. Acts 28. 30. And Paul (in his imprisonment at Rome under
the heathen persecutors) dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and
received all that came in unto him. London, Printed in the grand yeer of
hypocriticall and abominable dissimulation. 1649.
- 20 June 1649 - Thomas Prince, The Silken Independents Snare Broken. By Thomas
Prince, close Prisoner in the Tower. Turning the mischief intended upon him,
in Walwyns Wyles, upon the Seven Independent authors thereof, viz. William
Kiffin, David Lordell, John Price, Richard Arnald, Edmund Rosier, Henry Foster,
Henry Barnet. London, Printed by H.H. for W.L and are to be sold at the sign
of the Blackmore near Bishopgate, 1649.
- June/July 1649 - William Walwyn, Walwyns Just Defence Against the Aspersions
cast upon him, in A late un-christian Pamphlet entituled, Walwyns Wiles.
By William Walwyn, Merchant. London, Printed by H. Hils, for W. Larnar, and
are to be sold at the sign of the Blackmore, near Bishops-gate, 1649.
- 2 July 1649 - Ricard Overton, Overton's Defyance of the Act of Pardon: Or,
The Copy of a Letter to the Citizens usually meeting at the Whale-Bone in
Lothbury behinde the Royal Exchange; And others commonly (though unjustly)
styled Levellers. Written by Richard Overton Close prisoner in the Tower
of London. Imprinted at London 1649. [n.p.].
- 16 July 1649 - William Prynne, A Legall Vindication Of the Liberties of England,
against Illegall Taxes And pretended Acts of Parliament Lately enforced on
the People: Or, Reasons assigned by William Prynne of Swainswick in the County
of Sommerset, Esquire, why he can neither in Conscience, Law, nor Prudence
submit to the New illegall Tax or Contribution of Ninety Thousand pounds
the Month; Lately imposed on the Kingdom, by a pretended Act of some Commons
in (or rather out of) Parliament. London, Printed for Robert Hodges, and
are to be sold by him. 1649.
- 16 July 1649 - Richard Overton, The Baiting of the Great Bull of Bashan.
Unfolded and presented to the Affecters and approvers of the petition of
the 11. Sept. 1648. Especially to the Citizens of London usually meeting
at the Whale-bone in Lothbury behind the Royal Exchange, Commonly (though
unjustly) styled Levellers. By Richard Overton Close-prisoner in the Tower
of London. Imprinted at London, 1649.
- 10 August 1649 - John Lilburne, An Impeachment of High Treason against Oliver
Cromwel, and his Son in Law Henry Ireton Esquires, late Members of the late
forcibly dissolved House of Commons, presented to publique view; by Lieutenant
Colonel Iohn Lilburn close Prisoner in the Tower of London, for his real,
true and zealous affections to the Liberties of his native Country. In which
following Discourse or Impeachment, he engageth upon his life, either upon
the principles of Law (by way of indictment, the only and alone legall way
of all tryals in England) or upon the principles of Parliaments ancient proceedings,
or upon the principles of reason (by pretence of which alone, they lately
took away the Kings life) before a legal Magistracy, when there shal be one
again in England (which now is the leasst there is not) to prove the said
Oliver Cromwel guilty of the highest Treason that ever was acted in England,
and more deserving punishment and death then the 44 Judges hanged for injustice
by King Alfred before the Conquest... Imprinted at London, Anno Dom. 1649.
- 20 August 1649 - Six Soldiers (John Wood, Robert Everard, Hugh Hurst, Humphrey
Marston, William Hutchinson, James Carpe), The Levellers (falsely so called)
Vindicated, or the Case of the twelve Troops (which by Treachery in a Treaty)
was lately surprised, and defeated at Burford, truly stated, and offered
to the Judgment of all unbyasses, and wel-minded People, especially of the
Army, their fellow Souldiers, under the Conduct of the Lord Fairfax. By a
faithful remnant, late of Col. Scroops, Commissary General Iretons, and Col.
Harrisons Regiments, that hath not yet bowed their knee until Baal, whose
names (in behalf of themselves, and by the appointment of the rest of their
Friends) are hereunto subscribed. [n.p.].
- 29 August 1649 - [Signed by several but attributed to John Lilburne], An
Outcry of the Youngmen and Apprentices of London: or, An inquisition after
the lost fundamentall lawes and liberties of England. Directed (August 29.
1649.) in an epistle to the private souldiery of the Army, especially all
those that signed the solemne ingagement at Newmarket-Heath, the fifth of
June, 1647. But more especially to the private souldiers of the Generalls
Regiment of Horse, that helped to plunder and destroy the honest and true-hearted
English-men, trayterously defeated at Burford the 15. of May, 1649. Signed
by Charles Collins, Anthony Bristlebolt, William Trabret, Stephen Smith,
Edward Waldgrave, Thomas Frisby, Edward Stanley, William White, Nicholas
Blowd, John Floyd in the name and behalf of themselves, and the young-men
and apprentices of the City of London. Who are cordiall approvers of the
paper, called, The agreement of the free people, dated May 1. 1649. and the
defeated Burford-mens late vindication, dated the 20. of August, 1649. [n.p.].
- 16 November 1649 - John Lilburne, Truths Victory over Tyrants and Tyranny.
Being the Tryall of that Worthy Assertor of his Countreys Freedoms, Lieftenant
Colonell John Lilburne, Defender of the Ancient and known Laws of England,
against Men and Devills, whether in King, Parliament, Army, or Councell of
State. Guild-hall London, Octob. 26. Freed in open Court, from his unjust
and Illegall Charge of High-Treason, and cruell Imprisonment in the Tower,
by the unbyassed and just Verdict of this Jewry, whose Names are here inserted;
Miles Pettit, Holburn-Condu. Stephen Iles, Friday-street. Abraham Smith,
Smithfield. John King Smithfield. Nicholas Murrin, Gosling-str. Thomas Daintie,
Cheapside. Edmund Keysar, Holb-bridge Edward Perkins Smithfield. Ralph Packman,
Smithfield. William Cummins, Cheap. Symon Weeden, Bredstr. Henry Tooley,
Bredstreet. All good men and true. Printed in the fall of Tyranny. 1649.
- 1649 - Gerrard Winstanley et al., The True Levellers Standard Advanced: Or,
the State of Community Opened, and Presented to the Sons of Men. by Ferrard
Winstanley et al.. Beginning to Plant and Manure the Waste land upon George-Hill,
in the Parish of Walton, in the County of Surrey, London. Printed in the
Yeer, 1649. [n.p.].
- 1649 - Anon., To the Supream authority of this Nation, the Commons assembled
in Parliament: The humble Petition of divers wel-affected Women inhabiting
the cities of London, Westminster, the borough of Southwark, Hamblets, and
places adjacent; (Affecters and Approvers of the late large Petition) of
the Eleventh of September, 1648. In behalf of Lieutenant Col. John Lilburn,
Mr. William Walwyn, Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Richard Overton, (now Prisoners
in the Tower of London) and Captain William Bray, Close-prisoner in Windsor-Castle;
and Mr. William Sawyer, Prisoner at White-Hall, Imprinted at London, 1649.
Tracts on Liberty by the Levellers and their Critics, Volume 7: 1651-1659
- 2 December 1651 - William Walwyn, Juries Justified: or, A word of Correction
to Mr. Henry Robinson; For His seven Objections against the Trial of Causes,
by Juries of twelve men. By William Walwin. Published by authority. London,
Printed by Robert Wood; and are to be sold at his house, near the Flying-Horse
in Grubstreet. 1651.
- 28 January 1652 - Several Hands, The Onely Right Rule for Regulating the
Lawes and Liberties of the People of England. Presented in way of Advise
to His Excellency the L. Generall Cromwell, and the rest of the Officers
of the Army, January 28. 1652. By divers affectionate persons to Parliament,
Army, and Commonwealth, inhabiting the Cities of London, Westminster, borough
of Southwark, and places adjacent. Presenters in the behalf of themselves
and others, George Baldwin, Simon Turner, Philip Travers, William Tennant,
Isaac Gray, Robert Everard. Printed for the subscribers, and are to be sold
by William Larnar, at the Black-Moore's Head neer Fleet-bridge, 1652.
- March 1652 - John Lilburne, L. Colonel Iohn Lilbvrne His letter to his
dearly beloved wife Mrs. Elisabeth Lilbvrne March 1652. Expressing the
just reasons and grounds which have inforced him for the preservation of
his deare Life & more
deare reputation to apologize for himselfe unto the Netherlanders by laying
open the true fate of his late Fine & Banishment Eternal from his native
countrie. Printed at Amsterdam : by L. I. Anno Domini 1652.
- May 1652 - William Walwyn, W Walwyns Conceptions; for a Free Trade. To the
Hon. Committee for Forraine Affaires Sitting at Whitehall. [n.p.].
- May 1652 - John Lilburne, As you were, Or, The Lord General Cromwel and
the Grand Officers of the Armie their Remembrancer Wherein as in a glass
they may see the faces of their Soules spotted with Apostacy, Ambitious
breach of promise, and hocus-pocus-juggleing with the honest Soldiers and
the rest of the Free-people of England. to the end that haveing seene their
deformed and fearfull visage, they may be returning to doe their first
pretended workes, wipe of their spots, mend their deformities & regaine their lost Credit
: in a word, save themselves and the gaspeing Libertyes of the surprized
and enslaved English Nation : least enlargement and deliverance arise to
the English from another place, but they and their Fathers house shall be
destroyed. Ester 4. and 14. All which is contained in a Letter directed to
the Lord Generall Cromwel, to be communicated to the Grandees of his Army,
written by L. Colonel John Libvrne May 1652 from his Lodging in the pleasant
Citty of Refuge seated upon the bankes of the renowned River Rhine, & commonly
called by name Vianen. Printed May 1652. [n.p.].
- 1 August 1653 - John Lilburne, The Upright Mans Vindication: or, An Epistle
writ by John Lilburn Gent. Prisoner in Newgate, August 1. 1653. Unto his
Friends and late Neighbors, and Acquaintance at Theobalds in Hartford-shire,
and thereabouts in the several Towns adjoyning; Occasioned by Major William
Packers calumniating, and groundlesly reproaching the said Mr John Lilburn.
- 23 August 1653 - John Lilburne, The Just Defence of John Lilburn, Against
Such as charge him with Turbulency of Spirit. [n.p.]
- 16 May 1656 - John Lilburne, The Resurrection of John Lilburne, Now a Prisoner
in Dover-Castle, Declared And manifested in these following Lines penned
by himself, And now at his earnest desire published in print in these words.
- 3 March 1658 - William Prynne, Demophilos, or, The Assertor of the Peoples
Liberty: Plainly demonstrating by the Principles even of Nature itself, and
by the Primitive Constitutions of all Governments since the Creation of the
World. That the very Essence and the Fundamental of all Governments and Laws,
was meerly the safety of the People, and the Advancement of their Rights
and Liberries. To which is added the General Consent of all Parliaments in
the Nation, and the Concurrence of threescore and two Kings since first this
Island was visible in earnest and by Commerce with other Nations hath been
refined from Fable and Neglect. By William Prynne Esq; a Bencher of Lincolns-Inne.
London, Printed for Francis Coles in the Old-Baily, 1658.
- 16 February 1659 - Anon., The Leveller: Or The Principles & Maxims
Concerning Government and Religion, Which are Asserted by those that are
commonly called, Levellers. London, Printed, for Thomas Brewster, at the
Three Bibles, at the West End of Pauls, 1659.
- 27 April 1659 - William Allen, A Faithful Memorial of that Remarkable Meeting
of Many Officers of the Army in England, at Windsor Castle, in the year 1648.
As also, a Discovery of the Great Goodness of God, in his gracious meeting
of them, hearing and answering their suit or supplications, while they were
yet speaking to him. All Which is humbly presented, as a precious Patern
and President unto the Officers and Souldiers of the said Army (or elsewhere)
who are or shall be found in the like path, of following the Lord in this
evil day; searching and trying their waies, in order to a through Return
and Reformation. By William Allen, late Adjutant-General of the Army in Ireland.
London, Printed for Livewel Chapman, at the Crown in Popes-head Alley, 1659.
- 6 June 1659 - Edward Sexby [William Allen, Silius Titus], Killing, No Murder:
with some Additions Briefly Discourst in Three Questions, Fit for Publick
View; to deter and prevent Single Persons, and Councils from Usurping Supream
Power. London, Printed 1659. [n.p.].