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A History of Classical Liberalism: A Study Guide in Three Parts
by David M. Hart

[Created: November 15, 2006]
[Updated: December 17, 2011]

 

 

A History of Classical Liberalism II:
Ideological Movements & Key Political Events
by Dr. David M. Hart

[Created: September 20, 2011]
[Revised: December 17, 2011 ]

Content of the Study Guide:

 


Introduction

The following is a list of some significant movements and events which were fundamental in creating free societies. In summary they are (articles in EoL in bold; collections of texts at the OLL are also indicated):

Here is a list of some of the key individuals involved in these developments (all have entries in the EoL, if they have books at the OLL this is indicated):

  1. John Milton [OLL]
  2. John Locke [OLL]
  3. Adam Smith [OLL]
  4. Turgot [OLL]
  5. Voltaire [OLL]
  6. Condorcet [OLL]
  7. Thomas Jefferson [OLL]
  8. James Madison [OLL]
  9. Jeremy Bentham [OLL]
  10. Jean-Baptiste Say [OLL]
  11. Frédéric Bastiat [OLL]
  12. Richard Cobden [OLL]
  13. William Wilberforce
  14. William Lloyd Garrison
  15. Lysander Spooner [OLL]
  16. Herbert Spencer [OLL]
  17. Carl Menger [OLL]
  18. Ludwig von Mises [OLL]
  19. Friedrich Hayek [OLL]
  20. Milton Friedman
  21. James Buchanan [OLL]
  22. Antony Fisher, Leonard Read, & F.A. Harper
  23. Murray Rothbard [OLL]
  24. Ayn Rand

Recommended Readings

Key Text: The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, ed. Ronald Hamowy (Los Angeles: Sage, 2008. A Project of the Cato Institute).

 

Other recommended books:

 

Key Movements and Events in the Evolution of the CLT

One should begin with Steve Davies' "General Introduction," EoL, pp. xxv-xxxvii, which is an excellent survey of the ideas, movements, and key events in the development of liberty, then read some of the articles on specific historical periods, movements, schools of thought, and individuals. Items in quotes are entries in the EoL; those in bold are especially recommended.

  1. The Ancient World
    1. "Liberty in the Ancient World"
    2. "Epicurianism"
    3. "Stoicism"
  2. Medieval Period
    1. "Magna Carta"
    2. "Scholastics - School of Salamanca"
  3. Reformation & Renaissance
    1. "Classical Republicanism"
    2. "Dutch Republic"
  4. The 17th Century
    1. "English Civil Wars"
      1. "The Levellers"
      2. "John Milton" & "Puritanism"
    2. "Glorious Revolution"
      1. "John Locke" & "Algernon Sidney"
      2. "Whiggism"
  5. The 18th Century
    1. 18thC Commonwealthmen - "Cato's Letters"
    2. The Scottish Enlightenment
      1. "Enlightenment"
      2. "Adam Smith", "Adam Ferguson" & "David Hume"
    3. The French Enlightenment
      1. "Physiocracy" - "Turgot"
      2. "Montesquieu" & "Voltaire"
    4. "American Revolution"
      1. "Declaration of Independence" - "Thomas Jefferson" & "Thomas Paine"
      2. "Constitution, U.S." - "James Madison"
      3. "Bill of Rights, U.S."
    5. "French Revolution"
      1. "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen"
  6. The 19th Century
    1. "Classical Liberalism" - the English School
      1. "Philosophic Radicals"
      2. "Utilitarianism" - "Jeremy Bentham"
      3. "Classical Economics" - "John Stuart Mill"
    2. "Classical Liberalism" - the French School
      1. "Jean-Baptiste Say" & "Benjamin Constant"
      2. "Charles Comte" & "Charles Dunoyer"
      3. "Frédéric Bastiat" & "Gustave de Molinari"
    3. Free Trade Movement
      1. "Anti-Corn Law League" - "John Bright" & "Richard Cobden"
    4. "Feminism and Women's Rights"
      1. "Mary Wollstonecraft"
      2. "Condorcet"
    5. Abolition of Slavery - "Abolitionism"
      1. "William Wilberforce"
      2. "William Lloyd Garrison" & "John Brown"
      3. "Frederick Douglass" & "Lysander Spooner"
    6. [The Radical Individualists]
      1. "Thomas Hodgskin", "Herbert Spencer", & "Auberon Herbert"
    7. The "Austrian School of Economics" I
      1. 1st generation - "Carl Menger", "Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk"
      2. interwar years - "Ludwig von Mises", "Friedrich Hayek"
  7. Post-World War 2 Renaissance
    1. "Mont Pelerin Society" - "Friedrich Hayek", "Milton Friedman", "Karl Popper", "James Buchanan"
    2. Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA) & "Antony Fisher"
    3. Foundation for Economc Education (FEE) & "Leonard Read"
    4. Institute for Humane Studies & "F.A. Harper"
    5. The Austrian School of Economics II
      1. post-WW2 2nd generation - "Ludwig von Mises", "Friedrich Hayek", "Murray N. Rothbard", "Israel Kirzner"
    6. "Chicago School of Economics" & "Milton Friedman"
    7. "Objectivism" & "Ayn Rand"
    8. "Public Choice Economics" & "James Buchanan"